Like us on Facebook

Please wait..10 Seconds Cancel

Jurisprudence: G.R. No. 105562


FIRST DIVISION


G.R. No. 105562 September 27, 1993


LUZ PINEDA, MARILOU MONTENEGRO, VIRGINIA ALARCON, DINA LORENA AYO, CELIA CALUMBAG and LUCIA LONTOK, petitioners, 
vs.
HON. COURT OF APPEALS and THE INSULAR LIFE ASSURANCE COMPANY, LIMITED, respondents.


Mariano V. Ampil, Jr. for petitioners.


Ramon S. Caguiao for private respondent.





DAVIDE, JR., J.:


This is an appeal by certiorari to review and set aside the Decision of the public respondent Court of Appeals in CA-G.R. SP No. 22950 1 and its Resolution denying the petitioners' motion for reconsideration. 2 The challenged decision modified the decision of the Insurance Commission in IC Case 
No. RD-058. 3


The petitioners were the complainants in IC Case No. RD-058, an administrative complaint against private respondent Insular Life Assurance Company, Ltd. (hereinafter Insular Life), which was filed with the Insurance Commission on 20 September 1989. 4 They prayed therein that after due proceedings, Insular Life "be ordered to pay the claimants their insurance claims" and that "proper sanctions/penalties be imposed on" it "for its deliberate, feckless violation of its contractual obligations to the complainants, and of the Insurance Code." 5 Insular Life's motion to dismiss the complaint on the ground that "the claims of complainants are all respectively beyond the jurisdiction of the Insurance Commission as provided in Section 416 of the Insurance Code," 6 having been denied in the Order of 14 November 1989, 7 it filed its answer on 5 December 1989. 8 Thereafter, hearings were conducted on various dates.


On 20 June 1990, the Commission rendered its decision 9 in favor of the complainants, the dispositive portion of which reads as follows:


WHEREFORE, this Commission merely orders the respondent company to:


a) Pay a fine of FIVE HUNDRED PESOS (P500.00) a day from the receipt of a copy of this Decision until actual payment thereof;


b) Pay and settle the claims of DINA AYO and LUCIA LONTOK, for P50,000.00 and P40,000.00, respectively;


c) Notify henceforth it should notify individual beneficiaries designated under any Group Policy, in the event of the death of insured(s), where the corresponding claims are filed by the Policyholder;


d) Show cause within ten days why its other responsible officers who have handled this case should not be subjected to disciplinary and other administrative sanctions for deliberately releasing to Capt. Nuval the check intended for spouses ALARCON, in the absence of any Special Power of Attorney for that matter, and for negligence with respect to the release of the other five checks.


SO ORDERED. 10


In holding for the petitioners, the Insurance Commission made the following findings and conclusions:


After taking into consideration the evidences [sic], testimonial and documentary for the complainants and the respondent, the Commission finds that; First: The respondent erred in appreciating that the powers of attorney executed by five (5) of the several beneficiaries convey absolute authority to Capt. Nuval, to demand, receive, receipt and take delivery of insurance proceeds from respondent Insular Life. A cursory reading of the questioned powers of authority would disclosed [sic] that they do not contain in unequivocal and clear terms authority to Capt. Nuval to obtain, receive, receipt from respondent company insurance proceeds arising from the death of the seaman-insured. On the contrary, the said powers of attorney are couched in terms which could easily arouse suspicion of an ordinary 
man. . . .


Second: The testimony of the complainants' rebuttal witness, 
Mrs. Trinidad Alarcon, who declared in no uncertain terms that neither she nor her husband, executed a special power of attorney in favor of Captain Rosendo Nuval, authorizing him to claim, receive, receipt and take delivery of any insurance proceeds from Insular Life arising out of the death of their insured/seaman son, is not convincingly refuted.


Third: Respondent Insular Life did not observe Section 180 of the Insurance Code, when it issued or released two checks in the amount of P150,000.00 for the three minor children (P50,000.00 each) of complainant, Dina Ayo and another check of P40,000.00 for minor beneficiary Marissa Lontok, daughter of another complainant Lucia Lontok, there being no showing of any court authorization presented or the requisite bond posted.


Section 180 is quotes [sic] partly as follows:


. . . In the absence of a judicial guardian, the father, or in the latter's absence or incapacity, the mother of any minor, who is an insured or a beneficiary under a contract of life, health or accident insurance, may exercise, in behalf of said minor, any right, under the policy, without necessity of court authority or the giving of a bond where the interest of the minor in the particular act involved does not exceed twenty thousand pesos . . . . 11


Insular Life appealed the decision to the public respondent which docketed the case as CA-G.R. SP No. 22950. The appeal urged the appellate court to reverse the decision because the Insurance Commission (a) had no jurisdiction over the case considering that the claims exceeded P100,000.00, 
(b) erred in holding that the powers of attorney relied upon by Insular Life were insufficient to convey absolute authority to Capt. Nuval to demand, receive and take delivery of the insurance proceeds pertaining to the petitioners, (c) erred in not giving credit to the version of Insular Life that the power of attorney supposed to have been executed in favor of the Alarcons was missing, and 
(d) erred in holding that Insular Life was liable for violating Section 180 of the Insurance Code for having released to the surviving mothers the insurance proceeds pertaining to the beneficiaries who were still minors despite the failure of the former to obtain a court authorization or to post a bond.


On 10 October 1991, the public respondent rendered a decision, 12 the decretal portion of which reads:


WHEREFORE, the decision appealed from is modified by eliminating therefrom the award to Dina Ayo and Lucia Lontok in the amounts of P50,000.00 and P40,000.00, respectively. 13


It found the following facts to have been duly established:


It appears that on 23 September 1983, Prime Marine Services, Inc. (PMSI, for brevity), a crewing/manning outfit, procured Group PoIicy 
No. G-004694 from respondent-appellant Insular Life Assurance Co., Ltd. to provide life insurance coverage to its sea-based employees enrolled under the plan. On 17 February 1986, during the effectivity of the policy, six covered employees of the PMSI perished at sea when their vessel, M/V Nemos, a Greek cargo vessel, sunk somewhere in El Jadida, Morocco. They were survived by complainants-appellees, the beneficiaries under the policy.


Following the tragic demise of their loved ones, complainants-appellees sought to claim death benefits due them and, for this purpose, they approached the President and General Manager of PMSI, Capt. Roberto Nuval. The latter evinced willingness to assist complainants-appellees to recover Overseas Workers Welfare Administration (OWWA) benefits from the POEA and to work for the increase of their PANDIMAN and other benefits arising from the deaths of their husbands/sons. They were thus made to execute, with the exception of the spouses Alarcon, special powers of attorney authorizing Capt. Nuval to, among others, "follow up, ask, demand, collect and receive" for their benefit indemnities of sums of money due them relative to the sinking of M/V Nemos. By virtue of these written powers of attorney, complainants-appellees were able to receive their respective death benefits. Unknown to them, however, the PMSI, in its capacity as employer and policyholder of the life insurance of its deceased workers, filed with respondent-appellant formal claims for and in behalf of the beneficiaries, through its President, Capt. Nuval. Among the documents submitted by the latter for the processing of the claims were five special powers of attorney executed by complainants-appellees. On the basis of these and other documents duly submitted, respondent-appellant drew against its account with the Bank of the Philippine Islands on 27 May 1986 six (6) checks, four for P200,00.00 each, one for P50,000.00 and another for P40,00.00, payable to the order of complainants-appellees. These checks were released to the treasurer of PMSI upon instructions of 
Capt. Nuval over the phone to Mr. Mariano Urbano, Assistant Department Manager for Group Administration Department of respondent-appellant. Capt. Nuval, upon receipt of these checks from the treasurer, who happened to be his son-in-law, endorsed and deposited them in his account with the Commercial Bank of Manila, now Boston Bank.


On 3 July 1989, after complainants-appellees learned that they were entitled, as beneficiaries, to life insurance benefits under a group policy with respondent-appellant, they sought to recover these benefits from Insular Life but the latter denied their claim on the ground that the liability to complainants-appellees was already extinguished upon delivery to and receipt by PMSI of the six (6) checks issued in their names. 14


On the basis thereof, the public respondent held that the Insurance Commission had jurisdiction over the case on the ground that although some of the claims exceed P100,000.00, the petitioners had asked for administrative sanctions against Insular Life which are within the Commission's jurisdiction to grant; hence, "there was merely a misjoinder of causes of action . . . and, like misjoinder of parties, it is not a ground for the dismissal of the action as it does not affect the other reliefs prayed for." 15 It also rejected Insular Life's claim that the Alarcons had submitted a special power of attorney which they (Insular Life) later misplaced.


On the other hand, the public respondent ruled that the powers of attorney, Exhibits "1" to "5," relied upon by Insular Life were sufficient to authorize Capt. Nuval to receive the proceeds of the insurance pertaining to the beneficiaries. It stated:


When the officers of respondent-appellant read these written powers, they must have assumed Capt. Nuval indeed had authority to collect the insurance proceeds in behalf of the beneficiaries who duly affixed their signatures therein. The written power is specific enough to define the authority of the agent to collect any sum of money pertaining to the sinking of the fatal vessel. Respondent-appellant interpreted this power to include the collection of insurance proceeds in behalf of the beneficiaries concerned. We believe this is a reasonable interpretation even by an officer of respondent-appellant unschooled in the law. Had respondent appellant, consulted its legal department it would not have received a contrary view. There is nothing in the law which mandates a specific or special power of attorney to be executed to collect insurance proceeds. Such authority is not included in the enumeration of Art. 1878 of the New Civil Code. Neither do we perceive collection of insurance claims as an act of strict dominion as to require a special power of attorney. Moreover, respondent-appellant had no reason to doubt Capt. Nuval. Not only was he armed with a seemingly genuine authorization, he also appeared to be the proper person to deal with respondent-appellant being the President and General Manager of the PMSI, the policyholder with whom respondent-appellant always dealt. The fact that there was a verbal agreement between complainants-appellees and Capt. Nuval limiting the authority of the latter to claiming specified death benefits cannot prejudice the insurance company which relied on the terms of the powers of attorney which on their face do not disclose such limitation. Under the circumstances, it appearing that complainants-appellees have failed to point to a positive provision of law or stipulation in the policy requiring a specific power of attorney to be presented, respondents-appellant's reliance on the written powers was in order and it cannot be penalized for such an act. 16


Insofar as the minor children of Dina Ayo and Lucia Lontok were concerned, it ruled that the requirement in Section 180 of the Insurance Code which provides in part that:


In the absence of a judicial guardian, the father, or in the latter's absence or incapacity, the mother, of any minor, who is an insured or a beneficiary under a contract of life, health or accident insurance, may exercise, in behalf of said minor, any right under the policy, without necessity of court authority or the giving of a bond, where the interest of the minor in the particular act involved does not exceed twenty thousand pesos. Such a right, may include, but shall not be limited to, obtaining a policy loan, surrendering the policy, receiving the proceeds of the policy, and giving the minor's consent to any transaction on the policy.


has been amended by the Family Code 17 which grants the father and mother joint legal guardianship over the property of their unemancipated common child without the necessity of a court appointment; however, when the market value of the property or the annual income of the child exceeds P50,000.00, the parent concerned shall be required to put up a bond in such amount as the court may determine.


Hence, this petition for review on certiorari which we gave due course after the private respondent had filed the required comment thereon and the petitioners their reply to the comment.


We rule for the petitioners.


We have carefully examined the specific powers of attorney, Exhibits "1" to "5," which were executed by petitioners Luz Pineda, Lucia B. Lontok, Dina Ayo, Celia Calumag, and Marilyn Montenegro, respectively, on 14 May 1986 18 and uniformly granted to Capt. Rosendo Nuval the following powers:


To follow-up, ask, demand, collect and receipt for my benefit indemnities or sum of money due me relative to the sinking of M.V. NEMOS in the vicinity of El Jadida, Casablanca, Morocco on the evening of February 17, 1986; and


To sign receipts, documents, pertinent waivers of indemnities or other writings of whatsoever nature with any and all third persons, concerns and entities, upon terms and conditions acceptable to my said attorney.


We agree with the Insurance Commission that the special powers of attorney "do not contain in unequivocal and clear terms authority to Capt. Nuval to obtain, receive, receipt from respondent company insurance proceeds arising from the death of the seaman-insured. On the contrary, the said powers of attorney are couched in terms which could easily arouse suspicion of an ordinary man." 19 The holding of the public respondent to the contrary is principally premised on its opinion that:


[t]here is nothing in the law which mandates a specific or special power of attorney to be executed to collect insurance proceeds. Such authority is not included in the enumeration of art. 1878 of the New Civil Code. Neither do we perceive collection of insurance claims as an act of strict dominion as to require a special power of attorney.


If this be so, then they could not have been meant to be a general power of attorney since Exhibits "1" to "5" are special powers of attorney. The execution by the principals of special powers of attorney, which clearly appeared to be in prepared forms and only had to be filled up with their names, residences, dates of execution, dates of acknowledgment and others, excludes any intent to grant a general power of attorney or to constitute a universal agency. Being special powers of attorney, they must be strictly construed.


Certainly, it would be highly imprudent to read into the special powers of attorney in question the power to collect and receive the insurance proceeds due the petitioners from Group Policy No. G-004694. Insular Life knew that a power of attorney in favor of Capt. Nuval for the collection and receipt of such proceeds was a deviation from its practice with respect to group policies. Such practice was testified to by Mr. Marciano Urbano, Insular Life's Assistant Manager of the Group Administrative Department, thus:


ATTY. CAGUIOA:


Can you explain to us why in this case, the claim was filed by a certain Capt. Noval [sic]?


WITNESS:


a The practice of our company in claim pertaining to group insurance, the policyholder is the one who files the claim for the beneficiaries of the deceased. At that time, Capt. Noval [sic] is the President and General Manager of Prime Marine.


q What is the reason why policyholders are the ones who file the claim and not the designated beneficiaries of the employees of the policyholders?


a Yes because group insurance is normally taken by the employer as an employee-benefit program and as such, the benefit should be awarded by the policyholder to make it appear that the benefit really is given by the employer. 20


On cross-examination, Urbano further elaborated that even payments, among other things, are coursed through the policyholder:


q What is the corporate concept of group insurance insofar as Insular Life is concerned?


WITNESS:


a Group insurance is a contract where a group of individuals are covered under one master contract. The individual underwriting characteristics of each individual is not considered in the determination of whether the individual is insurable or not. The contract is between the policyholder and the insurance company. In our case, it is Prime Marine and Insular Life. We do not have contractual obligations with the individual employees; it is between Prime Marine and Insular Life.


q And so it is part of that concept that all inquiries, follow-up, payment of claims, premium billings, etc. should always be coursed thru the policyholder?


a Yes that is our practice.


q And when you say claim payments should always be coursed thru the policyholder, do you require a power of attorney to be presented by the policyholder or not?


a Not necessarily.


q In other words, under a group insurance policy like the one in this case, Insular Life could pay the claims to the policyholder himself even without the presentation of any power of attorney from the designated beneficiaries?


xxx xxx xxx


WITNESS:


a No. Sir.


ATTY. AMPIL:


q Why? Is this case, the present case different from the cases which you answered that no power of attorney is necessary in claims payments?


WITNESS:


a We did not pay Prime Marine; we paid the beneficiaries.


q Will you now tell the Honorable Commission why you did not pay Prime Marine and instead paid the beneficiaries, the designated beneficiaries?


xxx xxx xxx


ATTY. AMPIL:


I will rephrase the question.


q Will you tell the Commission what circumstances led you to pay the designated beneficiaries, the complainants in this case, instead of the policyholder when as you answered a while ago, it is your practice in group insurance that claims payments, etc., are coursed thru the policyholder?


WITNESS:


a It is coursed but, it is not paid to the policyholder.


q And so in this case, you gave the checks to the policyholder only coursing them thru said policyholder?


a That is right, Sir.


q Not directly to the designated beneficiaries?


a Yes, Sir. 21


This practice is usual in the group insurance business and is consistent with the jurisprudence thereon in the State of California — from whose laws our Insurance Code has been mainly patterned — which holds that the employer-policyholder is the agent of the insurer.


Group insurance is a comparatively new form of insurance. In the United States, the first modern group insurance policies appear to have been issued in 1911 by the Equitable Life Assurance Society. 22 Group insurance is essentially a single insurance contract that provides coverage for many individuals. In its original and most common form, group insurance provides life or health insurance coverage for the employees of one employer.


The coverage terms for group insurance are usually stated in a master agreement or policy that is issued by the insurer to a representative of the group or to an administrator of the insurance program, such as an employer. 23 The employer acts as a functionary in the collection and payment of premiums and in performing related duties. Likewise falling within the ambit of administration of a group policy is the disbursement of insurance payments by the employer to the employees. 24 Most policies, such as the one in this case, require an employee to pay a portion of the premium, which the employer deducts from wages while the remainder is paid by the employer. This is known as a contributory plan as compared to a non-contributory plan where the premiums are solely paid by the employer.


Although the employer may be the titular or named insured, the insurance is actually related to the life and health of the employee. Indeed, the employee is in the position of a real party to the master policy, and even in a non-contributory plan, the payment by the employer of the entire premium is a part of the total compensation paid for the services of the employee. 25 Put differently, the labor of the employees is the true source of the benefits, which are a form of additional compensation to them.


It has been stated that every problem concerning group insurance presented to a court should be approached with the purpose of giving to it every legitimate opportunity of becoming a social agency of real consequence considering that the primary aim is to provide the employer with a means of procuring insurance protection for his employees and their families at the lowest possible cost, and in so doing, the employer creates goodwill with his employees, enables the employees to carry a larger amount of insurance than they could otherwise, and helps to attract and hold a permanent class of employees. 26


In Elfstrom vs. New York Life Insurance Company, 27 the California Supreme Court explicitly ruled that in group insurance policies, the employer is the agent of the insurer. Thus:


We are convinced that the employer is the agent of the insurer in performing the duties of administering group insurance policies. It cannot be said that the employer acts entirely for its own benefit or for the benefit of its employees in undertaking administrative functions. While a reduced premium may result if the employer relieves the insurer of these tasks, and this, of course, is advantageous to both the employer and the employees, the insurer also enjoys significant advantages from the arrangement. The reduction in the premium which results from employer-administration permits the insurer to realize a larger volume of sales, and at the same time the insurer's own administrative costs are markedly reduced.


xxx xxx xxx


The most persuasive rationale for adopting the view that the employer acts as the agent of the insurer, however, is that the employee has no knowledge of or control over the employer's actions in handling the policy or its administration. An agency relationship is based upon consent by one person that another shall act in his behalf and be subject to his control. It is clear from the evidence regarding procedural techniques here that the insurer-employer relationship meets this agency test with regard to the administration of the policy, whereas that between the employer and its employees fails to reflect true agency. The insurer directs the performance of the employer's administrative acts, and if these duties are not undertaken properly the insurer is in a position to exercise more constricted control over the employer's conduct.


In Neider vs. Continental Assurance Company, 28 which was cited in Elfstrom, it was held that:


[t]he employer owes to the employee the duty of good faith and due care in attending to the policy, and that the employer should make clear to the employee anything required of him to keep the policy in effect, and the time that the obligations are due. In its position as administrator of the policy, we feel also that the employer should be considered as the agent of the insurer, and any omission of duty to the employee in its administration should be attributable to the insurer.


The ruling in Elfstrom was subsequently reiterated in the cases of Bass vs. John Hancock Mutual Life Insurance Co. 29 and Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. vs. State Board of Equalization. 30


In the light of the above disquisitions and after an examination of the facts of this case, we hold that PMSI, through its President and General Manager, Capt. Nuval, acted as the agent of Insular Life. The latter is thus bound by the misconduct of its agent.


Insular Life, however, likewise recognized Capt. Nuval as the attorney-in-fact of the petitioners. Unfortunately, through its official, Mr. Urbano, it acted imprudently and negligently in the premises by relying without question on the special power of attorney. In Strong vs. Repide, 31 this Court ruled that it is among the established principles in the civil law of Europe as well as the common law of American that third persons deal with agents at their peril and are bound to inquire as to the extent of the power of the agent with whom they contract. And in Harry E. Keller Electric Co. vs. Rodriguez, 32 this Court, quoting Mechem on Agency, 33 stated that:


The person dealing with an agent must also act with ordinary prudence and reasonable diligence. Obviously, if he knows or has good reason to believe that the agent is exceeding his authority, he cannot claim protection. So if the suggestions of probable limitations be of such a clear and reasonable quality, or if the character assumed by the agent is of such a suspicious or unreasonable nature, or if the authority which he seeks to exercise is of such an unusual or improbable character, as would suffice to put an ordinarily prudent man upon his guard, the party dealing with him may not shut his eyes to the real state of the case, but should either refuse to deal with the agent at all, or should ascertain from the principal the true condition of affairs. (emphasis supplied)


Even granting for the sake of argument that the special powers of attorney were in due form, Insular Life was grossly negligent in delivering the checks, drawn in favor of the petitioners, to a party who is not the agent mentioned in the special power of attorney.


Nor can we agree with the opinion of the public respondent that since the shares of the minors in the insurance proceeds are less than P50,000.00, then under Article 225 of the Family Code their mothers could receive such shares without need of either court appointments as guardian or the posting of a bond. It is of the view that said Article had repealed the third paragraph of Section 180 of the Insurance Code. 34 The pertinent portion of Article 225 of the Family Code reads as follows:


Art. 225. The father and the mother shall jointly exercise legal guardianship over the property of their unemancipated common child without the necessity of a court appointment. In case of disagreement, the father's decision shall prevail, unless there is judicial order to the contrary.


Where the market value of the property or the annual income of the child exceeds P50,000, the parent concerned shall be required to furnish a bond in such amount as the court may determine, but not less than ten per centum (10%) of the value of the property or annual income, to guarantee the performance of the obligations prescribed for general guardians.


It is clear from the said Article that regardless of the value of the unemancipated common child's property, the father and mother ipso jure become the legal guardian of the child's property. However, if the market value of the property or the annual income of the child exceeds P50,000.00, a bond has to be posted by the parents concerned to guarantee the performance of the obligations of a general guardian.


It must, however, be noted that the second paragraph of Article 225 of the Family Code speaks of the "market value of the property or the annual income of the child," which means, therefore, the aggregate of the child's property or annual income; if this exceeds P50,000.00, a bond is required. There is no evidence that the share of each of the minors in the proceeds of the group policy in question is the minor's only property. Without such evidence, it would not be safe to conclude that, indeed, that is his only property.


WHEREFORE, the instant petition is GRANTED. The Decision of 
10 October 1991 and the Resolution of 19 May 1992 of the public respondent in CA-G.R. SP No. 22950 are SET ASIDE and the Decision of the Insurance Commission in IC Case No. RD-058 is REINSTATED.


Costs against the private respondent.


SO ORDERED.


Cruz, Bellosillo and Quiason, JJ., concur.


GriƱo-Aquino, J., is on leave.





# Footnotes


1 Annex "F" of Petition; Rollo, 57-64. Per Associate Justice Luis A. Javellana, concurred in by Associate Justices Jorge S. Imperial and Serafin V. C. Guingona.


2. Annex "I" of Petition; Id., 84-86.


3 Annex "C" of Petition; Id., 31-38.


4 Original Records (OR), IC Case No. RD-058, 1-3.


5 OR, IC Case NO. RD-058, 3.


6 Id., 12.


7 Id., 15.


8 Id., 17-18.


9 Id., 214-222. Per Eduardo T. Malinis, Assistant Insurance Commissioner and Officer-in-Charge.


10 OR, IC Case No. RD-058, 221-222.


11 OR, IC Case No. RD-058, 219-221.


12 Annex "F" of Petition; Rollo, 57-65.


13 Id., 64.


14 Rollo, 58-59.


15 Rollo, 60, citing Section 11, Rule 3 and Pacal vs. Ramos, 81 Phil. 30 [1948].


16 Rollo, 62.


17 Public respondent cites no specific article. Evidently, however, it refers to Article 225 of the Family Code.


18 OR, IC Case No. RD-058, 99-103.


19 OR, IC Case No. RD-058, 220.


20 TSN, 16 January 1990, 4.


21 TSN, 16 January 1990, 25-27.


22 GREGG, D.W., Group Life Insurance, 3rd ed., 1960, 5-7.


23 KEETON, R.E. & WIDISS, A.I., Insurance Law, A Guide to Fundamental Principles, (Legal Doctrines, and Commercial Practices), 1988 ed., § 2.6(a).


24 Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. vs. State Board of Equalization, 652 P. 2d 
(Cal. Sup. Ct. 1982).


25 KEETON & WIDISS, supra.


26 Neider vs. Continental Assurance Co., 35 So. 2d 237 (La. Sup. Ct. 1948).


27 432 P. 2d 731 (Cal. Sup. Ct. 1976).


28 Supra.


29 518 P. 2d 1147 (Cal. Sup. Ct. 1974).


30 Supra.


31 6 Phil. 680 [1906].


32 44 Phil. 19, 26 [1992].


33 Volume I, Section 752.


34 PD. No. 612, promulgated on 18 December 1974, as amended, and thereafter codified pursuant to P.D. No. 1460, promulgated on 11 June 1978.

Labels

04/19 (1) 1.2 (1) 11/20 (1) 121479 (1) 128604 (1) 1906 (1) 1909 (2) 1910 (13) 1911 (2) 1912 (1) 1914 (10) 1915 (6) 1917 (1) 1918 (9) 1920 (4) 1921 (1) 1922 (8) 1923 (2) 1925 (4) 1926 (4) 1927 (3) 1929 (1) 1930 (4) 1931 (4) 1932 (2) 1933 (4) 1935 (4) 1936 (2) 1937 (4) 1938 (1) 1940 (2) 1942 (5) 1943 (2) 1946 (2) 1948 (2) 1950 (2) 1951 (7) 1952 (3) 1953 (3) 1954 (8) 1955 (6) 1956 (2) 1957 (4) 1958 (3) 1960 (2) 1961 (6) 1961 Juris Doctor (2) 1962 (6) 1963 (7) 1964 (6) 1965 (4) 1966 (12) 1967 (11) 1968 (10) 1969 (2) 1970 (2) 1971 (2) 1972 (2) 1973 (3) 1974 (2) 1975 (10) 1976 (2) 1977 (6) 1978 (8) 1979 (6) 1980 (4) 1981 (8) 1982 (10) 1983 (8) 1984 (7) 1985 (3) 1986 (8) 1987 (7) 1987 Constitution (4) 1988 (10) 1989 (18) 1990 (15) 1991 (12) 1992 (26) 1992.Nature of Certificate of Stock (2) 1993 (21) 1994 (18) 1995 (15) 1996 (9) 1997 (26) 1997 rules of civil procedure (1) 1998 (21) 1999 (38) 2/10 (1) 2000 (21) 2001 (21) 2002 (19) 2003 (28) 2004 (5) 2005 (14) 2006 (40) 2007 (22) 2008 (24) 2009 (9) 2010 (9) 2011 (4) 2012 (4) 2012 bar exam results (1) 212 U.S. 449 (2) 246 Corporation v. Daway (2) 283 U.S. 102 (2) 295 U.S. 247 (2) 309 U.S. 78 (2) 997 (1) A.M. No. 190 (2) A.M. No. MTJ-92-716 (2) A.M. No. RTJ-02-1673 (2) A.M. No. RTJ-07-2062 (1) A.M. RTJ-07-2062 (1) abandoned (1) Aboitiz Shipping Corp v Insurance Co of North America (1) ABSCBN v. CA (1) acceptance (2) acceptance by obligee (1) Accommodation (2) Accommodation Party (17) accomodation party (5) Acknowledgement receipt (1) acop v piraso (1) Actionable Document (10) Actual or Compensatory Damage (1) administrative expenses (2) Aggravating circumstance (2) Agro Conglomerates Inc. v. CA (2) Aisporna v CA (1) ajero v ca (1) Algarra v Sandejas (1) Allied Banking Corp. v. CA (2) Allied Banking Corp. v. Lim Sio Wan (2) allowable administrative expenses (2) Alteration (8) alvarado v galviola (1) Ambiguous Provisions Interpreted Against Insurer (2) American Home Assurance Co v Chua (1) Ancillary Contracts (3) Ang v. Associated Bank (2) applicability of provisions (6) application and problems (1) April 11 (1) April 12 (2) April 13 (2) April 16 (2) April 18 (4) April 19 (2) April 20 (4) April 22 (2) April 23 (1) April 25 (4) April 26 (2) April 27 (2) April 28 (1) April 29 (3) April 3 (4) April 30 (2) April 8 (2) April 9 (4) Areola v CA (1) art 1106 (1) art 1106 civil code (1) art 1107 (1) art 1173 (1) art 1174 servando v philippine steam navigation (1) art 1245 (1) art 1255 (1) art 1263 (1) art 14 rpc (2) art 1504 (1) art 1523 (1) art 1736 (1) art 19 (2) art 1902 (1) art 2 rpc (3) Art 20 (1) art 2087 (1) art 21 (4) Art 2176 (3) art 2180 (1) art 2208 (1) art 2217 (1) art 2219 (3) art 2229 (1) art 225 (1) art 23 (2) art 26 (2) Art 3 RPC (2) art 32 (1) art 4 rpc (6) art 6 rpc (2) art 64 (1) art 65 (1) art. 1 (2) ART. 1089 (2) art. 15 (2) Art. 17 (1) Art. 1733 (2) Art. 1734 (2) Art. 1736 (2) Art. 175 (1) Art. 1755 (4) Art. 1756 (2) Art. 1759 (2) Art. 1763 (2) Art. 1910 (1) art. 2 (1) art. 2 civil code (1) art. 2 rpc (2) Art. 2011 Civil Code (1) ART. 2208 (1) Art. 26 (1) art. 3 (1) art. 41 (1) art. 6 rpc (6) Art. XII (4) art.3 rpc (1) Article 1 RPC (2) Article 1173 (1) Article 1191 (1) Article 1249 of the New Civil Code (1) Article 1764 (1) Article 2206 (1) Article 2208 (1) Article 2219 (1) Article 2220 (1) Article 2232 of the Civil Code (1) Article X (1) Assignee (1) Assoc. Bank and Conrado Cruz v. CA (2) Associated Bank v. CA (1) Associated Bank v. CA (1) Associated Bank v. Pronstroller (2) Astro Electronics Corp. v. Phil. Export (2) ateneo (2) ateneo law (6) ateneo law school (1) Atrium Management Corp. v. CA (2) Attempted (2) attempted murder (2) Attempted or Frustrated Stage (2) attempted rape (3) Attempter (2) attoryneys fees (1) Atty. Ferrer v Sps. Diaz (1) August 06 (2) August 1 (2) August 10 (2) August 11 (4) August 12 (1) August 15 (2) August 17 (4) August 18 (2) August 20 (2) August 21 (2) August 22 (2) August 23 (5) August 25 (1) August 28 (2) August 29 (4) August 3 (2) August 30 (1) August 31 (9) August 5 (1) August 6 (6) August 9 (2) Authoried Driver Clause (1) Authority to Receive Payment (1) Authority to Receive Payment/Effect of Payment (1) authorized driver (1) avera v garcia (1) azaola v singson (1) aznar v garcia (1) azuela v ca (1) Bachrach Motor Co v. Lacson Ledesma (2) Bachrach v British American Assurance Co (1) bagtas v paguio (1) Balanay Jr. v. Martinez (2) baleros v. people (2) Baliwag Transit Corp. v. CA (1) baliwag v. ca (1) baltazar v laxa (1) Bank of America v CA (1) bank products (1) bar exam (4) bar exam result (2) bar exams (1) Bataan Cigar v. CA (2) Bautista v. Auto Plus Traders (2) Bayla v. Silang Traffic Co. (2) bellis v bellis (1) Bellis vs Bellis (1) benguet electric cooperative v ca (1) Bernabe Castillo et al v Hon Court of Appeals (1) bigamy (3) Bill of Lading (2) binding effect of payment (2) birth certificate (1) Blood Relationship (3) Bonifacio Bros v Mora (1) bonnevie v. ca (1) bosal holding bv v stratessecretaris van financier (1) bpi investment corp v ca (2) BPI v. CA (3) BPI v. Fidelity (2) British Airways v. CA (2) Bull v. United States (2) business (1) Business Economics (3) Business Economics notes (4) buy bust operation (1) Calculation of Risk (1) Calimutan v. People (1) Caltex v. CA (1) Caltex (Phils.) Inc. v. CA and Security Bank and Trust Co (1) Caltex v Sulpicio Lines (1) Calvo v UCPB Gen Insurance Co (1) Caneda Jr. v. CA (2) caneda v ca (1) Cangco v MRR (1) canlas v ca (1) Capital Insurance Surety Co Inc v Plastic Era (1) Carlos Arcona y Moban v CA (1) carriage (1) CARRIAGE OF GOODS BY SEA ACT (2) Carrier or Depositary (1) case (5) Case C-168/ (1) Case Digest (355) case digests (1) case digst (1) Case Method Notes (1) case overview (1) cases (34) Cases where Moral Damage is allowed (1) Cases where Moral damages are allowed (1) Cebu International Finance Corp. v. CA (2) cenomar (1) centennial prayer (1) Centralized Management Doctrine (2) Cerrano v Tan (1) certainty (2) Certificate of stock (2) Cha v CA (1) characterization (2) charter party (4) Checks (14) chico-nazario (1) Ching v. Sec. of Justice (3) CIA Maritima v. Insurance Co (2) cir v Lincoln Philippine Life Insurance (1) Civil Code (1) civil law review (3) civil procedure (3) civil procedure codals (1) Civil Procedure Notes Outline (1) Clear Provision Given Ordinary Meaning (1) Co v. Admiral United Savings Bank (2) Codals (2) Code of Professional Responsibility (1) codoy v calugay (1) cogsa (1) Cometa v CA (1) commerce (1) commercial law (2) commercial law review (1) commercial law reviewer (1) commodatum (1) common grammatical error (2) complete list (1) Complex Electric v NLRC (1) concept of moral damages (1) conflict of law case digest (3) conflict of laws (12) conflicts of law Notes Outline (1) conflicts of laws (2) conflicts of laws review (2) connecting factor (2) consideration (25) Consolidated Bank v. CA (1) Consolidated Plywood v. IFC (2) conspiracy (4) Constantino v Asia Life Insurance Co (1) Constitution (2) constitutional law (6) consummated crime (2) contract of adhesion (2) Contracting Parties (3) Coquia v Fieldmens Insurance Co Inc (1) cornelio amaro v Ambrocio Sumanguit (1) coronel v ca (1) corporate criminal liability (4) Corporate Law (81) Corporate Law Case Digest (42) Corporate Law Notes (6) Corporate Law Notes Outline (1) corporate negligence (1) Corporate Officers or employees (3) Corporation by estoppel doctrine (2) court (1) courts (1) cover notes (1) coverage (1) credit in life and health insurance (1) credit transactions (10) crim law 1 (65) criminal acts not immune (2) criminal law (10) criminal liability (1) criminal procedure (7) Crismina Garments v CA (1) cruz v villasor (1) cuevas v achacoso (1) Damages (4) Dangwa Transportation Co. Inc. v. CA (2) Datu Tagoranao Benito v. SEC (2) DBP v CA (1) de castro (1) de la cruz v capital ins (1) De la Pena v CA (1) De los Santos v. Republic (2) Dealings Between Corporation and Stockholders (2) Dealings with Corp. and Stockholders (2) death certificate (1) December 10 (2) December 12 (1) December 14 (3) December 16 (5) December 17 (5) December 18 (2) December 2 (2) December 20 (5) December 21 (6) December 23 (2) December 27 (1) December 28 (2) December 29 (5) December 3 (2) December 7 (1) December 8 (5) December 9 (2) Dee v. SEC (2) Defective attempt to form (2) defense of stranger (1) defenses (2) Definition and Concept of Damages (2) Definition and Coverage of Casualty Insurance (2) Definition and Coverage of Life Insurance (1) Definition of a Close Corporation (2) definition of felony (2) Degrees of Negligence (2) Del Rosario v CA (1) Del Rosario v Equitable Ins. and Casualty Co (1) Del Val v Del Val (1) delfin lim v Francisco Ponce De Leon (1) Delgado Brothers (2) demand (1) Demand and Supply Analysis (2) deposits (1) Dereliction of Duty (1) Determinants (1) Director of Lands v. CA (2) Director of Lands v. IAC (2) Discharge of instrument (2) Disqualification (1) divorce (2) Doctor (1) Doctrine of Piercing (1) Doctrine of Processual Presumption (1) documents processing (1) Doing an Insurance Business (1) donation (4) dorotheo v ca (1) Double insurance (1) double taxation (1) Dy v. People (2) Edward J. Nell Co. v. Pacific Farms Inc (2) Effect of Change of Interest (1) Effect of Change of Interest in Thing Insured (2) Effect of Lack of Insurable Interest (3) effect of non payment (2) Effect of Payment (1) effect of transfer (1) El Oriente Fabrica de Tabacos Inc v Posadas (1) Election of Directors; Vacancy in the Board (2) Elements (2) elements of quasi delict (3) emergency rule (1) en banc (74) Enervida v dela Torre (1) Engada v CA (1) english 101 (2) enriquez v abadia (1) Enriquez v Sun Life Assurance (1) equilibrium (1) Equitable PCI Bank v. Ong (2) erap v sandiganbayan (2) Ernesto Medina v Hon Floreliana Castro-Bartolome (1) estate (1) estate tax (2) estoppel (2) Estoppel and credit extension (2) Eternal Gardens Memorial Park Corp v Philippine American Life Insurance (1) Everett Streamship Corp. v. CA (2) Evident Premeditation (2) EX criminally liable civilly liable (2) Exception to Ambiguous Provisions Interpreted Against Insurer (1) exception to perfection (1) Exceptions to Contracting Parties (4) existing interest (5) expert and professionals (1) Expert Travel v CA (1) experts and professionals (1) Exploitation of Natural Resources (2) Factors in determining amount (7) FACTS (1) factual situation (2) family code (3) Far East Bank Trust v. Gold Palace Jewelry (2) far eastern university (1) Fausto Barredo v. Severino Garcia (2) fc (1) Feati University v. Bautista (1) february 15 (4) February 16 (2) February 18 (4) February 19 (2) February 2 (3) February 21 (2) February 22 (4) February 23 (2) February 24 (2) February 25 (3) February 26 (4) February 27 (6) February 28 (8) February 29 (4) February 4 (2) February 5 (2) February 6 (5) February 7 (2) February 8 (2) February 9 (11) Federico Ylarde v Edgardo Aquino (1) felonies (1) felony (1) fernando v ca (1) feu (1) FGU Insurance Corporation v CA (1) Fictitious Persons (2) Filipinas Compania de Seguros v Christern Henefeld (1) Filipinas Port v. Go (2) Filipino Merchants Insurance Co v CA (1) first division (54) first part (1) Fleischer v. Botica Nolasco Co (2) foreigner (2) forgery (21) Fortune Insurance and Surety Co v CA (1) forum non conveniens (1) fqs (1) Francisco v GSIS (1) Francisco v. CA (2) Frustrated (2) frustrated or consummated theft (2) Fuentes v CA (1) Fule v CA (1) Fully Paid Shares (1) G. R. No. 160188 (1) G. R. No. 116320 (1) G. R. No. 160188 (1) G. R. No. 164317 (1) G. R. No. 164317 February 6 (2) G.R. 79050-51 (1) G.R. No 48196 (2) G.R. No. 146635 (2) G.R. No. 166862 (1) G.R. No. 168100 November 20 (1) G.R. No. 101163 (2) G.R. No. 101503 (2) G.R. No. 102253 (2) G.r. No. 102342 (2) G.R. No. 102383 (2) G.R. No. 103119 (2) G.R. No. 103379 (2) G.R. No. 103554 (1) G.R. No. 103577 (1) G.R. No. 104376 (1) G.R. No. 104376 February 23 (1) G.R. No. 105562 (2) G.R. No. 105774 (2) G.R. No. 105836 (2) G.R. No. 106720 (1) G.R. No. 107062 (2) G.R. No. 107382 (1) G.R. No. 107382/G.R. No. 107612 (1) G.R. No. 107508 (2) G.R. No. 107518 (2) G.R. No. 107612 (1) G.R. No. 108017 (2) G.R. No. 108581 (1) G.R. No. 109491 (1) G.R. No. 111584 (2) G.R. No. 111692 (2) G.R. No. 112160 (3) G.R. No. 112212 (2) G.R. No. 112287 (1) G.R. No. 112287 December 12 (1) G.R. No. 112392 (2) G.R. No. 112573 (2) G.R. No. 113578 (2) G.R. No. 113725 (1) G.R. No. 113899 (1) G.R. No. 114061 (3) G.R. No. 114118 (2) G.R. No. 115024 (1) G.R. No. 115117 (2) G.R. No. 115156 (2) G.R. No. 115278 (2) G.R. No. 116320 (1) G.R. No. 116736 (2) G.R. No. 117660 (2) G.R. No. 118325 (2) G.R. No. 118342 (1) G.R. No. 118357 (2) G.R. No. 119176 (2) G.R. No. 120135 (2) G.R. No. 120262 (2) G.R. No. 120554 (2) G.R. No. 120706 (2) G.R. No. 120988 (2) G.R. No. 121315 (2) G.R. No. 121413 (2) G.R. No. 121479 (1) G.R. No. 121828 (2) G.R. No. 121998 (2) G.R. No. 122099 (2) G.R. No. 122191 (2) G.R. No. 122494 (2) G.R. No. 122880 (1) G.R. No. 123031 (2) G.R. No. 123404 (2) G.R. No. 123486 (1) G.R. No. 124050 (2) G.R. No. 124062 (2) G.R. No. 124099 (1) G.R. No. 124354 (2) G.R. No. 124371 (2) G.R. No. 124520 (2) G.R. No. 125678 (2) G.R. No. 125835 (1) G.R. No. 125851 (2) G.R. No. 125865 (2) G.R. No. 126204 (2) G.R. No. 126297 (3) G.R. No. 126405 (1) G.R. No. 126518 (2) G.R. No. 126670 December 2 (2) G.R. No. 127326 (2) G.R. No. 127823 (2) G.R. No. 128286 (2) G.R. No. 128604 (1) G.R. No. 128690 (2) G.R. No. 128721 (2) G.R. No. 129433 (2) G.R. No. 129459 (2) G.R. No. 129584 (2) G.R. No. 129792 (2) G.R. No. 129910 (2) G.R. No. 130030 (2) G.R. No. 130421 (2) G.R. No. 131166 (1) G.R. No. 131621 (1) G.R. No. 132403 (2) G.R. No. 132419 (2) G.R. No. 133179 (2) G.R. No. 133632 (2) G.R. No. 134784 (2) G.R. No. 136448 (1) G.R. No. 136448 November 3 (1) G.R. No. 136729 (2) G.R. No. 137775 (1) G.R. No. 138033 (2) G.R. No. 138074 (2) G.R. No. 138322 (1) G.R. No. 138510 (2) G.R. No. 138569 (2) G.R. No. 138739 (2) G.R. NO. 139802 (2) G.R. No. 140006-10 (2) G.R. No. 140047 (2) G.R. No. 140698 (3) G.R. No. 140707 (2) G.R. No. 142616 (2) G.R. No. 143838 (2) G.R. No. 144476 (2) G.R. No. 145804 (3) G.R. No. 146511 (2) G.R. NO. 146779 (2) G.R. No. 147746 (2) G.R. No. 147839 (2) G.R. No. 148211 (2) G.R. No. 148444 (1) G.R. No. 148496 (1) G.R. No. 148560 (2) G.R. No. 149038 (2) G.R. No. 151969 (2) G.R. No. 152133 (2) G.R. No. 153898 October 18 (2) G.R. No. 154127 (2) G.R. No. 154469 (2) G.R. No. 154514 (1) G.R. No. 154740 (2) G.R. No. 15566 (1) G.R. No. 155791 (2) G.R. No. 156167 (2) G.R. No. 156207 (2) G.R. No. 156294 (2) G.R. No. 157216 (2) G.R. No. 157309 (2) G.R. No. 157451 (1) G.R. No. 157833 (1) G.R. No. 157906 (3) G.R. No. 158262 (2) G.R. No. 158312 (2) G.R. No. 159747 (1) G.R. No. 161886 (1) G.R. No. 1641 (1) G.R. No. 165300 (1) G.R. No. 165483 (2) G.R. No. 165546 (2) G.R. No. 165842 (2) G.R. No. 166245 (2) G.R. No. 166326 (2) G.R. No. 166405 (2) G.R. No. 166479 (2) G.R. No. 167330 (2) g.r. no. 167571 (1) G.R. No. 168100 November 20 (1) G.R. No. 168115 (2) G.R. No. 168274 (2) G.R. No. 168402 (2) G.R. No. 170325 (2) G.R. No. 170984 (2) G.R. No. 171052 (2) G.R. No. 172896 (2) G.R. No. 172966 (2) G.R. No. 174489 (1) G.R. No. 176831 (1) G.R. No. 178523 (2) G.R. No. 17958 (2) G.R. No. 179859 (1) G.R. No. 181132 (2) G.R. No. 183526 (1) G.R. No. 20341 (2) G.R. No. 23703 (2) G.R. No. 34774 (2) G.R. No. 44119 (2) G.R. No. 48541 (2) G.R. No. 6659 (2) G.R. No. 71871 (1) G.R. No. 72110 (2) G.R. No. 72593 (2) G.R. No. 73886 (2) G.R. No. 74695 (1) G.R. No. 74761 (2) G.R. No. 74886 (2) G.R. No. 75605 (2) G.R. No. 76452 (2) G.R. No. 76788 (2) G.R. No. 80294-95 (1) G.R. No. 80447 (2) G.R. No. 81322 (2) G.R. No. 83122 (2) G.R. No. 84197 (1) G.R. No. 84197 July 28 (2) G.R. No. 85141 (3) G.R. No. 88724 (2) G.R. No. 88866 (2) G.R. No. 89802 (2) G.R. No. 89880 (2) G.R. No. 92087 (1) G.R. No. 92244 (2) G.R. No. 92288 (3) G.R. No. 93048 (2) G.R. No. 93073 (2) G.R. No. 93397 (2) G.R. No. 93695 (2) G.R. No. 94071 (2) G.R. No. 95322 (2) G.R. No. 95529 (2) G.R. No. 95546 (1) G.R. No. 95582 (3) G.R. No. 95641 (2) G.R. No. 95696 (2) G.R. No. 95696. March 3 (2) G.R. No. 97336 (2) G.R. No. 97626 (2) G.R. No. 97753 (2) G.R. No. 99301 (2) G.R. No. L-12189 (2) G.R. No. L-12190 (1) G.R. No. L-12191 (2) G.R. No. L-12219 (2) G.R. No. L-12736 (2) G.R. No. L-12858 (2) G.R. No. L-12907 (2) G.R. No. L-13005 (1) G.R. No. L-14003 (1) G.R. No. L-14074 (1) G.R. No. L-14300 (2) G.R. No. L-14441 (1) G.R. No. L-14441 December 17 (1) G.R. No. L-14986 (2) G.R. No. L-15126 (2) G.R. No. L-15184 (2) G.R. No. L-15894 (2) G.R. No. L-15895 (2) G.R. No. L-16138 (2) G.R. No. L-16215 (2) G.R. No. L-16567 (2) G.R. No. L-1669 (2) G.R. No. L-16749 (1) G.R. No. L-17312 (1) G.R. No. L-17474 (2) G.R. No. L-17845 (2) G.R. No. L-18216 (2) G.R. No. L-18287 (2) G.R. No. L-18657 (2) G.R. No. L-18924 (2) G.R. No. L-18965 (3) G.R. No. L-18979 (1) G.R. No. L-19189 (2) G.R. No. L-20081 (2) G.R. No. L-20357 (1) G.R. No. L-20434 (2) G.R. No. L-20850 (2) G.R. No. L-20853 (2) G.R. No. L-21278 (2) G.R. No. L-21291 (2) G.R. No. L-21380 (2) G.R. No. L-21462 (2) G.R. No. L-21500 (2) G.R. No. L-21574 (2) G.R. No. L-21642 (2) G.R. No. L-22042 (2) G.R. No. L-2227 (2) G.R. No. L-22375 (1) G.R. No. L-22554 (2) G.R. No. L-22595 (1) G.R. No. L-22796 (2) G.R. No. L-2294 (2) G.R. No. L-23145 (1) G.R. No. L-23145 November 29 (2) G.R. No. L-23241 (2) G.R. No. L-23276 (2) G.R. No. L-23678 (2) G.R. No. L-24803 (2) G.R. No. L-24978 (2) G.R. No. L-25317 (2) G.R. No. L-25845 (2) G.R. No. L-25920 (2) G.R. No. L-26743 (2) G.R. No. L-26767 (2) G.R. No. L-27155 (2) G.R. No. L-28093 (2) G.R. No. L-28120 (2) G.R. No. L-2861 (2) G.R. No. L-28673 (2) G.R. No. L-28946 (1) G.R. No. L-29276 (2) G.R. No. L-29432 (2) G.R. No. L-30389 (2) G.R. No. L-30896 (1) G.R. No. L-32213 (1) G.R. No. L-32611 (2) G.R. No. L-33171 (2) G.R. No. L-3362 (1) G.R. No. L-33722 (2) G.R. No. L-34539 (2) G.R. No. L-34539 July 14 (1) G.R. No. L-3497 (1) G.R. No. L-35095 (2) G.R. No. L-35262 (2) G.R. No. L-35283 (2) G.R. No. L-36481-2 (2) G.R. No. L-37750 (2) G.R. No. L-38037 (2) G.R. No. L-38338 (1) G.R. No. L-38613 (2) G.R. No. L-38684 (2) G.R. No. L-38816 (2) G.R. No. L-39050 (2) G.R. No. L-39247 (2) G.R. No. L-39419 (2) G.R. No. L-40207 (1) G.R. No. L-4067 (1) G.R. No. L-40796 (2) G.R. No. L-4170 (1) G.R. No. L-4197 (2) G.R. No. L-42462 (2) G.R. No. L-43191 (2) G.R. No. L-43596 (1) G.R. No. L-44059 (2) G.R. No. L-44837 (1) G.R. No. L-45637 (2) G.R. No. L-46061 (2) G.R. No. L-4611 (1) G.R. No. L-46558 (2) G.R. No. L-4722 (2) G.R. No. L-47722 (2) G.R. No. L-47739 (2) G.R. No. L-48006 (3) G.R. No. L-4818 (2) G.R. No. L-48195 (2) G.R. No. L-48250 (2) G.R. No. L-48321 (1) G.R. No. L-48757 (3) G.R. No. L-48796 (2) G.R. No. L-49101 (2) G.R. No. L-49188 (2) G.R. No. L-49390 (2) G.R. No. L-4963 (1) G.R. No. L-4977 (2) G.R. No. L-50373 (2) G.R. No. L-50959 (2) G.R. No. L-51806 (2) G.R. No. L-51832 (2) G.R. No. L-5270 (2) G.R. No. L-5272 (4) G.R. No. L-5377 (1) G.R. No. L-54216 (2) G.R. No. L-55079 (2) G.R. No. L-55397 (2) G.R. No. L-56169 June 26 (1) G.R. No. L-56487 (2) G.R. No. L-56655 (2) G.R. No. L-5715 (2) G.R. No. L-58509 (1) G.R. No. L-58867 (2) G.R. No. L-5887 (2) G.R. No. L-59825 (2) G.R. No. L-59919 (2) G.R. No. L-60502 (2) G.R. No. L-6055 (2) G.R. No. L-6114 (2) G.R. No. L-62943 (2) G.R. No. L-6442 (1) G.R. No. L-67626 (2) G.R. No. L-67835 (2) G.R. No. L-6801 (1) G.R. No. L-69044 (1) G.R. No. L-7188 (1) G.R. No. L-7664 (2) G.R. No. L-7667 (2) G.R. No. L-7760 (2) G.R. No. L-7991 (2) G.R. No. L-8110 (2) G.R. No. L-81827 (3) G.R. No. L-8385 (2) G.R. No. L-8451 (2) G.R. No. L-8527 (1) G.R. No. L-8844 (2) G.R. No. L-9356 (2) G.R. No. L-9374 (2) G.R. No. L-9401 (2) G.R. No. L-9671 (1) G.R. No.113558 (1) G.R. No.148496 (1) G.R. No.L-17312 (1) G.R. No.L-4611 (1) G.R. Nos. 113255-56 (2) G.R. Nos. 128833 (1) G.R. Nos. L-21353 and L-21354 (2) G.R. Nos. L-25836-37 (2) G.R. Nos. L-28324-5 (2) G.R.No. 113899 (1) G.R.No. 115024 (2) G.R.No. 118367 (1) G.R.No. 131166 (1) G.R.No. 137775 (1) G.R.No. 154514 (1) G.R.No. 159747 (1) G.R.No. L-22375 (1) G.R.No. L-9671 (1) G.R.No.113558 (1) G.R.Nos. 128833 (1) Gaisano Cagayan v Insurance Company of North America (1) gallardo v morales (1) gan v yap (1) Ganzon v. CA (2) garcia v gatchalian (1) Garcia v Hongkong Fire Marine Insurance Co (1) garcia v lacuesta (1) Garcia v. Llamas (2) Garcia – Recio v Recio (1) Garcia – Recio vs Recio (1) Gashem Shookat Baksh v CA (1) Gatbonton v. NLRC and Mapua (2) Gatchalian v Delim (1) Gelano v. CA (2) Gempesaw v. CA (2) General Indorser (3) general power of appointment (2) General Principles on Insurance (4) General Provisions (2) Gercio v. Sun Life Assurance Co. of Canada (1) German Garcia v The Hon Mariano M Florido et al (1) gil v murciano (1) gilchrist v cuddy (1) golden notes (1) Gonzales v. RCBC (2) Good Father of a Family (3) GR 138322 (1) GR No. L-26001 (2) grammar (2) grammar rules (2) grammatical error (2) grand union supermarket v jose espino (1) grandfather rule (2) Great Asian Sales Center Corp. v. CA (2) Great Eastern Life Ins. Co. v. Hongkong Shanghai Bank (2) Great Pacific Life Assurance Corp v CA (1) guide (1) guingon v Del Monte (1) Gulf Resorts Inc v Philippine Charter Insurance Corp (1) Gullas v. PNB (2) he or she (1) Heirs of Borlado v Vda De Bulan (1) Heirs of Loreto C. Maramag v Maramag (1) heirs of pdro tayag v hon fernando alcantara (1) Hi Cement Corp. v. Insular Bank (1) Hi-Cement Corp. v. Insular Bank (1) him or her (1) Holder in Due Course (2) honasan case (1) Honasan v The Panel of Investigating Prosecutor (1) icasiano v icasiano (1) Ilano v. CA (2) illegal provision in a will (1) illegitimate children (1) imelda marcos (1) immediate cause of which was the peril insured against (1) importance of accounting (1) in contemplation of death (2) In Re Mario v Chanliongco (1) in re will of riosa (1) Inc (4) Inc v Home Insurance (2) Inc v. CA (2) Inc v. Register of Deeds of Manila (2) Inc. v. CA (2) income tax (2) Incomplete instruments (2) indeterminate sentence law (4) insanity (1) installment sales law (1) Insular Drugs v. PNB (2) insular life assurance co v ebrado (1) insurance (134) insurance act (1) insurance agent (1) Insurance Broker (1) insurance case digest (72) insurance code (5) insurance law reviewer (2) insurance notes (3) insurance notes outline (3) Insurance reviewer (1) Insured Outlives Policy (1) Integrated Packing v CA (1) intent (2) interest (1) Interference with Contractual Relations (2) International Corp. Bank v. CA (2) International taxation (2) intod v. ca (2) intoxication (1) Introduction to Negotiable Instruments (6) Invalid Designation (4) IPL (2) IPL case digest (2) Irrevocable Designation (2) Isaac v AL Ammen Trans Co (1) j marketing v Sia (1) jaboneta v gustilo (1) Jai-Alai Corp. of the Phil. v. BPI (2) Jan 18 (1) January 11 (2) January 15 (3) January 16 (1) January 18 (1) January 19 (3) January 21 (4) January 22 (5) January 23 (2) January 25 (2) January 28 (7) January 29 (9) January 30 (10) January 31 (13) January 5 (2) jarco marketing v ca (1) Joaquinita P Capili v Sps Dominador and Rosalita Cardana (1) judge fernando vil pamintuan (1) Judicial Construction Cannot Alter Terms (1) judicial declaration of presumptive death (1) July 11 (2) July 13 (1) July 14 (7) July 16 (1) July 17 (2) July 18 (2) July 19 (6) July 20 (2) July 21 (2) July 23 (2) July 24 (2) July 26 (2) July 27 (2) July 28 (3) July 29 (2) july 3 (2) July 30 (5) July 31 (10) July 5 (2) July 6 (2) July 8 (3) June 11 (2) June 12 (2) June 16 (2) June 19 (2) June 2 (2) june 20 (3) June 21 (2) June 22 (4) June 25 (2) June 26 (2) June 27 (4) June 28 (2) June 29 (3) June 30 (5) June 5 (2) June 6 (2) June 8 (5) Juris Doctor (653) jurisdiction (3) jurisprudence (390) Jurisprudence: G.R. No. 153468 (2) kalaw v relova (1) Kierulf v CA (1) Kinds (1) kinds of damage (1) Korean Airlines Co. LTd v. CA (2) labor (4) labor law (4) labor relations (2) Lambert v. Fox (2) Lampano v. Jose (1) Land Titles and Deeds (14) Land Titles and Deeds Case Digest (7) Land Titles and Deeds Notes (5) Land Titles and Deeds Notes Outline (1) lanters products inc v ca (1) last clear chance (6) law (4) law reviewer (1) law reviewer political law (2) laws (2) lawyer (2) lawyer laughs (1) lawyers code (1) lawyers code of professional responsibility (1) lawyers oath (1) lawyers pledge (1) Lazatin v Twano (1) Lee v. CA (2) legal effect (3) legal ethics (1) legal jokes (1) legal updates (1) legitimation (2) lethal ethics (1) Liabilities (1) Liabilities did not sign (1) Liabilities of Parties (2) Liabilities of person who did not sign (1) liabilities of the parties (17) Liability for Torts (4) liability of an agent (2) liability of insurer for suicide and accidental death (1) Liang v. People (2) litonjua v montilla (1) llorente v ca (1) Llorente vs CA (1) Lopez v Del Rosario and Quiogue (1) Lopez v Pan American (1) loss (1) loss caused by negligence of the insurance (1) LRTA v. Navidad (2) Magellan Mfg Marketing Corp v CA (1) Makati Sports Club Inc v. Cecile Cheng (2) mala in se (2) Malayan Insurance v CA (1) Malayan Insurance Co v Arnaldo (1) malice (3) malum prohibitum (2) Manila Lighter Transportation Inc. v. CA (2) Manila Metal Container Corp. v. PNB (1) Manuel v. People (2) Marcelo Macalinao v Eddie Medecielo Ong (1) March 1 (3) March 13 (2) March 14 (5) March 15 (4) March 16 (3) March 18 (2) March 19 (8) March 2 (2) March 20 (2) March 22 (2) March 24 (2) March 26 (2) March 27 (6) March 28 (7) March 3 (4) March 30 (9) March 31 (7) March 7 (2) March 9 (4) Marcos v. Judge Fernando Vil. Pamintuan (1) Maria Benita A. Dulay v The Court of Appeals (1) marinduque v workmens (1) marriage (2) marriage certificate (1) master of business and administration (1) Maulini v. Serrano (2) May 1 (2) May 16 (2) May 18 (5) May 19 (4) may 20 (4) May 23 (2) May 25 (2) May 26 (2) May 28 (1) May 29 (3) may 30 (3) May 31 (6) May 6 (2) May 8 (2) May 9 (2) MBA (5) MBA Notes (4) me or I (1) measure of indemnity (1) measure of insurable interest (1) Memorize (1) memory aid (4) mercantile law (8) mercantile law review (3) Metrobank v. CA (2) Metrobank v. FNCB (2) Metropolitan Bank and Trust Co. v. Cablizo (2) miciano v brimo (1) Mijares v CA (1) Miranda Ribaya v Carbonell (1) Misamis Lumber Corp. v. Capital Ins and Surety Co (1) mistake of fact (4) mistake of fact is not a defense (2) mitigating circumstances (2) Mitigation of Liability (1) Montinola v. PNB (2) Moral Damage for Labor Cases (1) moral damages (1) Moral Damages on Taking of Life (2) Moran v. CA and Citytrust Bank (2) morgan v commissioner (2) mortgage (2) mortgagor (4) mortis causa (2) motion jokes (1) motive (2) Motor Vehicle Liability Insurance (2) Mr. and Mrs. Amador C Ong v Metropolitan Water District (1) Murder (2) mutual insurance companies (1) MWSS v. CA (2) Nario v Philippine American Life Insurance Co of Canada (1) National Power v Philipp Brothers (1) national steel corp v ca (1) Natividad V. Andamo v IAC (1) naturalization (1) Nature of Certificate of Stock (4) Nava v. Peers Marketing Corp (2) Negotiable Instruments (4) Negotiable Instruments Case Digest (76) Negotiable Instruments Codals (2) Negotiable Instruments Law (143) Negotiable Instruments Memorize (1) Negotiable Instruments Notes (8) Negotiable Instruments Notes Outline (1) negotiation (1) nepomuceno v ca (1) New Life Enterprises v Court of Appeals (1) No conflicts rule on essential validity of contracts (1) no designation (1) No frustrated rape (2) nocon (1) Northwest Orient Airlines Inc v CA (1) notes (2) Notice of Dishonor (4) November 1 (1) November 14 (6) November 16 (2) November 19 (4) November 2 (3) November 20 (4) November 23 (5) November 25 (3) November 26 (5) November 27 (2) November 28 (5) November 29 (16) November 3 (5) November 30 (2) November 5 (2) November 6 (4) November 7 (1) November 8 (2) nso (1) nso documents (1) October 1 (2) October 10 (3) October 12 (4) October 13 (2) October 14 (2) October 15 (1) October 18 (2) October 19 (5) October 2 (2) October 21 (4) October 23 (4) October 24 (2) October 25 (6) October 28 (2) October 30 (6) October 31 (1) october 7 (2) October 8 (6) Oh Cho v. Director of Lands (1) Ong Lim Sing v. FEB Leasing Finance Corp. (1) Ong Yong v. Tiu (2) opulencia v ca (1) ortega v valmonte (1) other (3) others (1) Outline (7) Overbreadth doctrine (2) P.D. 1529 (1) Pacheco v. CA (2) Pacific Timber v CA (1) Padgett v. Babcock (2) PAL v CA (2) Palileo v Cosio (1) Palting v. San Jose Petroleum (2) panaguiton jr v doj (1) Paris-Manila Perfume Co v Phoenix Assurance (1) part 1 (2) part 2 (2) part 3 (2) part 4 (1) part four (1) Part One (2) part three (3) part two (1) passers (2) payment for honor (2) PDIC (1) pecuniary interest (1) pedro elcano v regina hill (1) People v Bagayong (1) people v. ah chong (2) people v. basao (2) People v. Campuhan (2) People v. Daleba (2) People v. Dela Cruz (1) People v. Domasian (2) People v. Fernando (2) people v. go shiu ling (2) people v. gonzales (1) People v. Lol-lo & Saraw (2) people v. marco (2) People v. Oanis (2) People v. Opero (2) people v. orita (2) People v. Ortega (2) People v. Pagador (2) People v. Palaganas (2) People v. Piliin (2) People v. Pilola (2) People v. Quasha (2) people v. sia (1) People v. Tan Boon Kong (2) people v. wong cheng (2) perez v ca (2) perfection (2) Perla Compania De Seguros v Sps Gaudencio (1) Personal Injury and Death (2) Personal Notes (27) personally liable (1) persons (20) persons case digest (3) persons cases (1) persons secondarily liable (1) Phil American Life Insurance Company v Ansaldo (1) Phil Export v VP Eusebio (1) Philamcare Health Systems (2) philippine (1) Philippine Airlines v. CA (3) Philippine American Life Insurance Company v Pineda (1) Philippine Bank of Commerce v. Jose M. Aruego (2) Philippine Commercial International Bank v CA (1) Philippine Commercial v CA (1) philippine health care providers v estrada (1) philippine lawyer (2) philippine lawyers oath (1) Philippine National Bank v. Erlando Rodriguez (1) Philippine Phoenix Surety Insurance Co v Woodworks Inc (1) Philippine Pryce Assurance Corp v CA (1) Physical Injuries (2) pineda v ca (1) pink notes (1) Pioneer Insurance v. CA (2) Pirovano v. De la Rama Steamship Co. (2) PNB v (2) pnb v ca (1) PNB v. CA (6) PNB v. National City Bank New York (2) PNB v. Ritratto Group (2) PNOC v CA (1) poeple v pirame (1) political law review (2) Ponce v. Alsons Cement Corp. (2) Porfirio P. Cinco v Hon Mateo Canonoy (1) Potenciano v. Reynoso (1) Powers of Corporate Officers (2) prayer (1) Pre-Corporation Code (2) Pre-incorporation Subscription (2) Preemptive Rights (4) prescription (1) Presentment for acceptance (2) Presentment for Payment (2) preterition of surviving spouse (1) pro reo doctrine (1) producers bank v ca (1) Professional Services (2) Professional Services Inc v Natividad and Enrique Agana (1) Promissory Notes (14) Proof and Proximate Cause (5) proof beyond reasonable doubt (2) proof of filiation (6) prosecution of offenses (3) Protest (2) proximate cause (6) Prudencio v. CA (2) Prudential Bank v. IAC (2) PUBLIC ACT NO. 521 (1) Public Enemy (1) Public humiliation (2) Public Utilities (2) Purchase Agreement (2) Qua Chee Gan v Law Union and Rock Insurance Co Ltd (1) qualified by (1) quasi delict (5) Quasi-delict (7) Quasi-negotiable Character of Certificate of Stock (2) Quinto v. Andres (2) Quirante v IAC (1) R.A. 8799 (1) Raagas v Traya (1) rabadilla v ca (1) radiowealth finance v. del rosario (2) rafael partricio v ca (1) Ramos v CA (1) Rationale for Centralized Management Doctrine (2) Real Estate Mortgage (1) red notes (1) Registered Lands (1) registration of property (1) reinsurance (1) Release from Subscription Obligation (2) remedial law (1) remedy (2) Remo Jr. v. IAC (2) Republic of the Phils. v. BPI (2) Republic Planters Bank v. CA (2) republic v. bagtas (1) Republic v. Ebrada (2) Requisites of Double insurance (1) Requisites of negotiability (8) Res Ipsa Loquitur (4) res ipso loquitor (1) Restriction on Transfer (2) review (1) reviewer (7) revised penal code (2) revised rules of court (1) revocable Designation (1) reyes v ca (1) Right of First Refusal (4) right of subrogation (1) Right of the holder (2) Rights (1) Rights of a holder (2) Rights of Holder (1) Rights of Holder against general indorser (1) Rights of the holder (6) Rights to Certificate of Stock for Fully Paid Shares (1) Rivera v. People (2) Rizal Commercial Banking Corporation v CA (1) rodelas v aranza (1) rodrigo concepcion v ca (1) Rodriguez (2) Roman Catholic Apostolic Administrator of Davao v. LRC (2) Roman Catholic Bishop of Malolos v. IAC (2) roxas v de jesus (1) rpc (1) rul 39 (1) rule 110 (3) rule 111 (1) rule on summary procedure (1) rules of court (2) Rules on cover notes (1) Sadaya v. Sevilla (2) Salas v. CA (2) sales (1) Sales de Gonzaga v Crown Life Insurance Co (1) samar mining v nordeutcher lloyd (1) san beda (1) san beda law (3) San Carlos Milling v. CIR (2) San Juan Structural v. CA (2) San Miguel Brewery v Law Union (1) saudi arabian airlines v ca (2) Saura Import Export Co v Philippine International Surety Co (1) sc 173 (1) sec 12 (1) sec 13 (1) sec 1314 (1) Sec 17 (1) sec 177 of the insurance code (1) Sec 18 (1) Sec 189 (1) sec 28 (1) sec 77 (2) sec 84 (1) Sec. 1 - 8 (1) Sec. 17 - 23 (1) Sec. 24 - 29 (1) Sec. 3 (4) Sec. 30-50 (1) Sec. 39 (2) Sec. 51-59 (1) Sec. 9 - 16 (1) Sec.39 (2) SECOND DIVISION (46) second part (1) secondarily liable (1) secs 24 to 29 (1) Section 63 (2) securities regulation code (1) Security Bank v. Rizal Commercial (2) Seguritan v. People (2) senator honasan (2) sentence (1) Sep 21 (1) Separate Juridical Personality (1) september (1) September 1 (4) September 11 (4) September 12 (2) September 14 (2) September 15 (5) September 17 (2) September 18 (2) September 21 (5) September 22 (2) September 23 (2) September 26 (2) September 27 (2) September 28 (6) September 29 (2) september 30 (2) September 4 (2) September 5 (4) Sharuff Co v Baloise Fire Insurance Co (1) siliman (1) simple loan (2) Singapore Airlines v Hon Ernani Cruz Pano (1) So Ping Bun v ca (1) Social Security System v Davac (1) South Sea Surety and Insurance Co v CA (1) Southern Luzon Employees and Ass v Golpeo (1) Special Rules on Experts and Professionals (2) src (1) SSS v Aguas (2) St Louis Realty Corporation v ca (1) State Investment House Inc. v. CA (2) stipulation pour autrui (3) Stipulations Cannot Be Segregated (2) Stock and Transfer Book (2) Stockholders of F. Guanzon and Sons (2) Strebel v Figueros (1) Strong Juridical Personality (2) study guide (1) sulpicio v ca (2) Sumaplong v CA (1) supply (1) supreme court (2) surety bond (1) sweet lines v teves (1) Tai Tong Chuache v Insurance Commission (1) Tan v. SEC (2) Tan v. Sycip (2) Tanco Jr v Philippine Guaranty Co (1) tax 2 (10) tax 2 case digest (5) Tayag v. Benguet (2) teleserv (1) Templation Inc (2) territoriality principle (1) Theory of Concession (2) THIRD DIVISION (36) third part (1) tinga (1) Tiong v. Ting (2) To whom insurance proceeds payable (1) top 10 (1) torts (4) torts and damages (172) torts and damages case digest (79) torts and damages notes outline (5) Traders Royal Bank v. CA (2) Traders Royal Bank v. Radio Philippines Network Inc (2) Transfers (2) transportation (53) transportation case digest (27) Transportation notes (1) transportation notes outline (1) Travel-On v. CA (2) Treachery (2) Triple Eight v NLRC (1) Ty v First National Surety and Assurance Co Inc (1) Types of Acquisitions (2) Types of Acquisitions/Transfers (2) U.S. Jurisprudence (1) U.S. v. Bull (2) ultra vires (2) ultra vires act (1) unfair labor practice (2) Unfounded Suits (4) United States v. Wells (2) university of the philippines (1) unjust dismissal (2) up law (1) up law review (1) US (4) US Jurisprudence (2) us v baggay (1) us v pineda (1) us v. ah sing (1) us v. look chaw (2) uson v del rosario (1) ust (1) ust golden notes (1) ust notes (1) uy kaio eng v nixon lee (1) valenzuela v ca (2) Valenzuela v. People (2) Valle Verde Country Club v. Africa (2) Vda Dde Consuegra v Governments Service Insurance System (1) Velasco v. People (2) Velasquez v. Solidbank Corp (2) Verendia v CA (1) Vicente R. de Ocampo v. Gatchalian (2) Villanueva v Oro (1) Villanueva v. Nite (2) Violago v. BA Finance Corp (2) Violation of Civil and Political Rights (1) Violation of Human Dignity and Privacy (2) Voluntary Dealings (1) Voting Trust Agreements (2) Wee Sion Ben v. Semexco/Zest Markering Corp (2) when corporate officers (1) When Insurable Interest Must Exist (1) when negligent (2) White Gold Marine Services Inc v Pioneer Insurance Surety Corp (1) Who are liable after dissolution (2) Who Exercises Rights of Minor Insured or Beneficiaries (1) Who may recover (3) who or whom (1) wills and succession (38) Wright v Manila Electric (1) writing (1) Yang v. CA (2) you and i (1) you and me (1) zaldiva v reyes (1)