Like us on Facebook

Please wait..10 Seconds Cancel

Jurisprudence: G.R. No. 95322 March 1, 1993

FIRST DIVISION

G.R. No. 95322    March 1, 1993

PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, plaintiff-appellee,
vs.
PABLITO DOMASIAN AND DR. SAMSON TAN, accused-appellant.

The Solicitor General for plaintiff-appellee.

Silvestre L. Tagarao for appellant Pablito Domasian.

Lino M. Patajo for appellant Dr. Samson Tan.

CRUZ, J.:

The boy was detained for only about three hours and was released even before his parents received the ransom note. But it spawned a protracted trial spanning all of 8 years and led to the conviction of the two accused. 1

The victim was Enrico Paulo Agra, who was 8 years old at the time of the incident in question. The accused were Pablito Domasian and Samson Tan, the latter then a resident physician in the hospital owned by Enrico's parents. They were represented by separate lawyers at the trial and filed separate briefs in this appeal.

The evidence of the prosecution showed that in the morning of March 11, 1982, while Enrico was walking with a classmate along Roque street in the poblacion of Lopez, Quezon, he was approached by a man who requested his assistance in getting his father's signature on a medical certificate. Enrico agreed to help and rode with the man in a tricycle to Calantipayan, where he waited outside while the man went into a building to get the certificate. Enrico became apprehensive and started to cry when, instead of taking him to the hospital, the man flagged a minibus and forced him inside, holding him firmly all the while. The man told him to stop crying or he would not be returned to his father. When they alighted at Gumaca, they took another tricycle, this time bound for the municipal building from where they walked to the market. Here the man talked to a jeepney driver and handed him an envelope addressed to Dr. Enrique Agra, the boy's father. The two then boarded a tricycle headed for San Vicente, with the man still firmly holding Enrico, who continued crying. This aroused the suspicion of the driver, Alexander Grate, who asked the man about his relationship with the boy. The man said he and the boy were brothers, making Grate doubly suspicious because of the physical differences between the two and the wide gap between their ages. Grate immediately reported the matter to two barangay tanods when his passengers alighted from the tricycle. Grate and the tanods went after the two and saw the man dragging the boy. Noticing that they were being pursued, the man told Enrico to run fast as their pursuers might behead them. Somehow, the man managed to escape, leaving Enrico behind. Enrico was on his way home in a passenger jeep when he met his parents, who were riding in the hospital ambulance and already looking for him. 2

At about 1:45 in the afternoon of the same day, after Enrico's return, Agra received an envelope containing a ransom note. The note demanded P1 million for the release of Enrico and warned that otherwise the boy would be killed. Agra thought the handwriting in the note was familiar. After comparing it with some records in the hospital, he gave the note to the police, which referred it to the NBI for examination. 3

The test showed that it bad been written by Dr. Samson Tan. 4 On the other hand, Enrico was shown a folder of pictures in the police station so be could identify the man who had detained him, and he pointed to the picture of Pablito Domasian. 5 Domasian and Tan were subsequently charged with the crime of kidnapping with serious illegal detention in the Regional Trial Court of Quezon. 6

The defense of both accused was denial and alibi. Domasian claimed that at the time of the incident he was watching a mahjong game in a friend's house and later went to an optical clinic with his wife for the refraction of his eyeglasses. 7 Dr. Tan for his part said he was in Manila. 8

After trial Judge Enrico A. Lanzanas found both accused guilty as charged and sentenced them to suffer the penalty of reclusion perpetua and all accessory penalties. They were also required to pay P200,000.00 to Dr. and Mrs. Enrique Agra as actual and moral damages and attorney's fees.

In the present appeal, the accused-appellants reiterate their denial of any participation in the incident in question. They belittle the credibility of the prosecution witnesses and submit that their own witnesses are more believable. Tan specifically challenges the findings of the NBI and offers anew the opposite findings of the PC/INP showing that he was not the writer of the ransom note. He maintains that in any case, the crime alleged is not kidnapping with serious illegal detention as no detention in an enclosure was involved. If at all, it should be denominated and punished only as grave coercion. Finally, both Domasian and Tan insist that there is no basis for the finding of a conspiracy between them to make them criminally liable in equal degree.

First, on the credibility of the witnesses. This is assessed in the first instance by the trial judge, whose finding in this regard is received with much respect by the appellate court because of his opportunity to directly observe the demeanor of the witnesses on the stand.

In the case at bar, Judge Lanzanas relied heavily on the testimony of the victim himself, who positively identified Domasian as the person who detained him for three hours. The trial court observed that the boy was "straight-forward, natural and consistent" in the narration of his detention. The boy's naivete made him even more believable. Tirso Ferreras, Enrico's classmate and also his age, pointed to Domasian with equal certainty, as the man who approached Enrico when they were walking together that morning of March 11, 1982. Grate, the tricycle driver who suspected Enrico's companion and later chased him, was also positive in identifying Domasian. All these three witnesses did not know Domasian until that same morning and could have no ill motive in testifying against him. By contrast, Eugenia Agtay, who testified for the defense, can hardly be considered a disinterested witness because she admitted she had known Domasian for 3 years.

The defense asks why Domasian openly took Enrico to several public places if the intention was to kidnap and detain him. That is for Domasian himself to answer. We do no have to probe the reasons for the irrational conduct of an accused. The more important question, as we see it, is why Domasian detained Enrico in the first place after pretending he needed the boy's help. That is also for Domasian to explain. As for Enrico's alleged willingness to go with Domasian, this was manifested only at the beginning, when he believed the man sincerely needed his assistance. But he was soon disabused. His initial confidence gave way to fear when Domasian, after taking him so far away from the hospital where he was going, restrained and threatened him if he did not stop crying.

Domasian's alibi cannot stand against his positive identification by Enrico, Grate and Ferreras, let alone the contradictions made by his corroborating witness, Dr. Irene Argosino, regarding the time he was in the optical clinic and the manner of his payment for the refraction. 9 Tan's alibi is not convincing either. The circumstance that he may have been in Manila at the time of the incident does not prove that he could not have written the ransom note except at that time.

Concerning the note, Rule 132, Section 22, of the Rules of Court provides as follows:

The handwriting of a person may be proved by any witness who believes it to be the handwriting of such person and has seen the person write, or has seen writing purporting to be his upon which the witness has acted or been charged and has thus acquired knowledge of the handwriting of such person. Evidence respecting the handwriting may also be given by a comparison, made by the witness or the court with writings admitted or treated as genuine by the party against whom the evidence is offered or proved to be genuine to the satisfaction of the judge.

Two expert witnesses were presented in the case at bar, one from the NBI, 10 who opined that the ransom note and the standard documents were written by one and the same person, and another from the PC/INP 11 who expressed a contrary conclusion. The trial court chose to believe the NBI expert because his examination and analysis "was more comprehensive than the one conducted by the PC/INP handwriting expert, who virtually limited his reliance on the perceived similarities and dissimilarities in the pattern and style of the writing, thereby disregarding the basic principle in handwriting identification that it is not the form alone nor anyone feature but rather a combination of all the qualities that identify."

We have held that the value of the opinion of a handwriting expert depends not upon his mere statements of whether a writing is genuine or false, but upon the assistance he may afford in pointing out distinguishing marks, characteristics and discrepancies in and between genuine and false specimens of writing which would ordinarily escape notice or detection from an unpracticed observer. 12 The test of genuineness ought to be the resemblance, not the formation of letters in some other specimens but to the general character of writing, which is impressed on it as the involuntary and unconscious result
of constitution, habit or other permanent course, and is, therefore itself permanent. 13

Presented with the conflicting opinions of the witnesses in the case at bar, the Court feels that the scales should tilt in favor of the prosecution. Significantly, the NBI opinion was bolstered by the testimony of Agra, who believed that the ransom note was written by Tan, with whose handwriting he was familiar because they had been working in the hospital for four years and he had seen that handwriting every day in Tan's prescriptions and daily reports. 14

Cesar v. Sandiganbayan 15 is not applicable because that case involved a forgery or the deliberate imitation of another person's signature. In the case before us, there was in fact an effort to disguise the ransom note writer's penmanship to prevent his discovery.

As for the nature of the crime committed, Article 267 of the Revised Penal Code provides as follows:

Art. 267.   Kidnapping and serious illegal detention. — Any private individual who shall kidnap or detain another, or in any manner deprive him of his liberty, shall suffer the penalty of reclusion perpetua to death:

1.  If the kidnapping or detention shall have lasted more than five days.

2.  If it shall have been committed simulating public authority.

3.  If any serious physical injuries shall have been inflicted upon the person kidnapped or detained; of if threats to kill him shall have been made.

4.  If the person kidnapped or detained shall be a minor, female or a public officer.

The penalty shall be death where the kidnapping or detention was committed for the purpose of extorting ransom from the victim or any other person; even if none of the circumstances above-mentioned were present in the commission of the offense.

Contrary to Tan's submission, this crime may consist not only in placing a person in an enclosure but also in detaining him or depriving him in any manner of his liberty. 16 In the case at bar, it is noted that although the victim was not confined in an enclosure, he was deprived of his liberty when Domasian restrained him from going home and dragged him first into the minibus that took them to the municipal building in Gumaca, thence to the market and then into the tricycle bound for San Vicente. The detention was committed by Domasian, who was a private individual, and Enrico was a minor at that time. The crime clearly comes under Par. 4 of the above-quoted article.

Tan claims that the lower court erred in not finding that the sending of the ransom note was an impossible crime which he says is not punishable. His reason is that the second paragraph of Article 4 of the Revised Penal Code provides that criminal liability shall be incurred "by any person performing an act which would be an offense against persons or property, were it not for the inherent impossibility of its accomplishment or on account of the employment of inadequate or ineffectual means." As the crime alleged is not against persons or property but against liberty, he argues that it is not covered by the said provision.

Tan conveniently forgets the first paragraphs of the same article, which clearly applies to him, thus:

Art. 4.      Criminal liability. — Criminal liability shall be incurred:

1.  By any person committing a felony (delito) although the wrongful act done be different from that which he intended.

xxx          xxx    xxx

Even before the ransom note was received, the crime of kidnapping with serious illegal detention had already been committed. The act cannot be considered an impossible crime because there was no inherent improbability of its accomplishment or the employment of inadequate or ineffective means. The delivery of the ransom note after the rescue of the victim did not extinguish the offense, which had already been consummated when Domasian deprived Enrico of his liberty. The sending of the ransom note would have had the effect only of increasing the penalty to death under the last paragraph of Article 267 although this too would not have been possible under the new Constitution.

On the issue of conspiracy, we note first that it exists when two or more persons come to an agreement concerning the commission of a felony and decide to commit it, whether they act through physical volition of one or all, proceeding severally or collectively. 17

It is settled that conspiracy can be inferred from and proven by the acts of the accused themselves when said acts point to a joint purpose and design, concerted action and community of interests. 18 In the instant case, the trial court correctly held that conspiracy was proved by the act of Domasian in detaining Enrico; the writing of the ransom note by Tan; and its delivery by Domasian to Agra. These acts were complementary to each other and geared toward the attainment of the common ultimate objective, viz., to extort the ransom of P1 million in exchange for Enrico's life.

The motive for the offense is not difficult to discover. According to Agra, Tan approached him six days before the incident happened and requested a loan of at least P15,000.00. Agra said he had no funds at that moment and Tan did not believe him, angrily saying that Agra could even raise a million pesos if he really wanted to help. 19 The refusal obviously triggered the plan to kidnap Enrico and demand P1 million for his release.

The constitutional issues raised by Domasian do not affect the decision in this case. His claim that he was arrested without warrant and then tortured and held incommunicado to extort a confession from him does not vitiate his conviction. He never gave any confession. As for the allegation that the seizure of the documents used for comparison with the ransom note was made without a search warrant, it suffices to say that such documents were taken by Agra himself and not by the NBI agents or other police authorities. We held in the case of People vs. Andre Marti, 20 that the Bill of Rights cannot be invoked against acts of private individuals, being directed only against the government and its law-enforcement agencies and limitation on official action.

We are satisfied that Tan and Domasian, in conspiracy with each other, committed the crime of kidnapping as defined and penalized under Article 267 of the Revised Penal Code and so deserve the penalty imposed upon them by the trial court.

WHEREFORE, the appealed decision is AFFIRMED, with costs against the accused-appellants.

Let a copy of this decision be sent to the Commission on Human Rights for investigation of the alleged violation of the constitutional rights of Pablito Domasian.

SO ORDERED.

GriƱo-Aquino, Bellosillo and Quiason, JJ., concur.

Labels

04/19 (1) 1.2 (1) 11/20 (1) 121479 (1) 128604 (1) 1906 (1) 1909 (2) 1910 (13) 1911 (2) 1912 (1) 1914 (10) 1915 (6) 1917 (1) 1918 (9) 1920 (4) 1921 (1) 1922 (8) 1923 (2) 1925 (4) 1926 (4) 1927 (3) 1929 (1) 1930 (4) 1931 (4) 1932 (2) 1933 (4) 1935 (4) 1935 constitution (1) 1936 (2) 1937 (4) 1938 (1) 1940 (2) 1942 (5) 1943 (2) 1946 (2) 1948 (2) 1949 (4) 1950 (2) 1951 (9) 1952 (3) 1953 (3) 1954 (8) 1955 (6) 1956 (2) 1957 (4) 1958 (3) 1960 (2) 1961 (6) 1961 Juris Doctor (2) 1962 (6) 1963 (7) 1964 (6) 1965 (4) 1966 (12) 1967 (13) 1968 (10) 1969 (2) 1970 (2) 1971 (2) 1972 (2) 1973 (5) 1974 (2) 1975 (10) 1976 (2) 1977 (6) 1978 (8) 1979 (6) 1980 (4) 1981 (8) 1982 (10) 1983 (8) 1984 (7) 1985 (3) 1986 (8) 1987 (7) 1987 Constitution (4) 1988 (10) 1989 (18) 1990 (15) 1991 (12) 1992 (26) 1992.Nature of Certificate of Stock (2) 1993 (23) 1994 (20) 1995 (15) 1996 (11) 1997 (26) 1997 rules of civil procedure (1) 1998 (23) 1999 (42) 2/10 (1) 2000 (25) 2001 (22) 2002 (22) 2003 (28) 2004 (7) 2005 (16) 2006 (45) 2007 (27) 2008 (35) 2009 (13) 2010 (16) 2011 (10) 2012 (4) 2012 bar exam results (1) 2013 (1) 2014 (3) 2014 bar exam passers (1) 2014 bar exam results (1) 2015 (2) 2016 bar passers (1) 2016 bar results (1) 2016 bar top notchers (1) 2016 successful bar candidates (1) 212 U.S. 449 (2) 246 Corporation v. Daway (2) 283 U.S. 102 (2) 295 U.S. 247 (2) 309 U.S. 78 (2) 4-year grace period (2) 997 (1) A.M. No. 190 (2) A.M. No. MTJ-92-716 (2) A.M. No. RTJ-02-1673 (2) A.M. No. RTJ-07-2062 (1) A.M. RTJ-07-2062 (1) abandoned (1) Aboitiz Shipping Corp v Insurance Co of North America (1) ABSCBN v. CA (1) acceptance (2) acceptance by obligee (1) Accommodation (2) Accommodation Party (17) accomodation party (5) Accrual method (3) Acknowledgement receipt (1) acop v piraso (1) Actionable Document (10) Actual or Compensatory Damage (1) administrative expenses (2) Aggravating circumstance (2) Agner v. BPI (1) Agro Conglomerates Inc. v. CA (2) Aisporna v CA (1) ajero v ca (1) Algarra v Sandejas (1) all events test (2) Allied Banking Corp. v. CA (2) Allied Banking Corp. v. Lim Sio Wan (2) allowable administrative expenses (2) Alteration (8) alvarado v galviola (1) Ambiguous Provisions Interpreted Against Insurer (2) American Home Assurance Co v Chua (1) Ancillary Contracts (3) Ang v. Associated Bank (2) applicability of provisions (6) application and problems (1) Apply accrual method equally for both deduction and income (1) Apr. 19 2007 (1) April 11 (1) April 12 (4) April 13 (2) April 16 (2) April 18 (4) April 19 (3) April 20 (4) April 22 (2) April 23 (1) April 25 (4) April 26 (2) April 27 (2) April 28 (1) April 29 (3) April 3 (4) April 30 (2) April 8 (2) April 9 (4) Areola v CA (1) art 1106 (1) art 1106 civil code (1) art 1107 (1) art 1173 (1) art 1174 servando v philippine steam navigation (1) art 1245 (1) art 1255 (1) art 1263 (1) art 14 rpc (2) art 1504 (1) art 1523 (1) art 1736 (1) art 19 (2) art 1902 (1) art 2 rpc (3) Art 20 (1) art 2087 (1) art 21 (4) Art 2176 (3) art 2180 (1) art 2208 (1) art 2217 (1) art 2219 (3) art 2229 (1) art 225 (1) art 23 (2) art 26 (2) Art 3 RPC (2) art 32 (1) art 4 rpc (6) art 6 rpc (2) art 64 (1) art 65 (1) art. 1 (2) ART. 1089 (2) art. 15 (2) Art. 17 (1) Art. 1733 (2) Art. 1734 (2) Art. 1736 (2) Art. 175 (1) Art. 1755 (4) Art. 1756 (2) Art. 1759 (2) Art. 1763 (2) Art. 1910 (1) art. 2 (1) art. 2 civil code (1) art. 2 rpc (2) Art. 2011 Civil Code (1) ART. 2208 (1) Art. 26 (1) art. 3 (1) art. 41 (1) art. 6 rpc (6) Art. XII (4) art.3 rpc (1) Article 1 RPC (2) Article 1173 (1) Article 1191 (1) Article 1249 of the New Civil Code (1) Article 1764 (1) Article 2206 (1) Article 2208 (1) Article 2219 (1) Article 2220 (1) Article 2232 of the Civil Code (1) Article VII (1) Article X (1) Assignee (1) Assoc. Bank and Conrado Cruz v. CA (2) Associated Bank v. CA (1) Associated Bank v. CA (1) Associated Bank v. Pronstroller (2) assumed within the purview of general rule (1) Astro Electronics Corp. v. Phil. Export (2) ateneo (2) ateneo law (6) ateneo law school (1) Atrium Management Corp. v. CA (2) Attempted (2) attempted murder (2) Attempted or Frustrated Stage (2) attempted rape (3) Attempter (2) attoryneys fees (1) Atty. Ferrer v Sps. Diaz (1) Aug. 15 (1) August 06 (2) August 1 (2) August 10 (2) August 11 (4) August 12 (3) August 15 (3) August 17 (4) August 18 (2) August 20 (3) August 21 (2) August 22 (2) August 23 (5) August 25 (1) August 28 (4) August 29 (4) August 3 (4) August 30 (1) August 31 (9) August 5 (1) August 6 (6) August 9 (2) Authoried Driver Clause (1) Authority to Receive Payment (1) Authority to Receive Payment/Effect of Payment (1) authorized driver (1) avera v garcia (1) azaola v singson (1) aznar v garcia (1) azuela v ca (1) Bachrach Motor Co v. Lacson Ledesma (2) Bachrach v British American Assurance Co (1) bagtas v paguio (1) bail (5) Balanay Jr. v. Martinez (2) baleros v. people (2) Baliwag Transit Corp. v. CA (1) baliwag v. ca (1) baltazar v laxa (1) Bank of America v CA (1) bank products (1) bar exam (5) bar exam passers (1) bar exam result (2) bar exam results (1) bar exams (1) Bataan Cigar v. CA (2) Bautista v. Auto Plus Traders (2) Bayla v. Silang Traffic Co. (2) bellis v bellis (1) Bellis vs Bellis (1) benguet electric cooperative v ca (1) Bernabe Castillo et al v Hon Court of Appeals (1) bicolandia drug corp v. cir (2) bigamy (3) Bill of Lading (2) bill of rights (4) binding effect of payment (2) bir (4) bir function (2) bir power (2) birth certificate (1) Blood Relationship (3) Bonifacio Bros v Mora (1) bonnevie v. ca (1) book excerpts (1) bosal holding bv v stratessecretaris van financier (1) bp 22 (2) bpi investment corp v ca (2) BPI v. CA (3) BPI v. Fidelity (2) British Airways v. CA (2) british american tobacco v. camacho (2) Bull v. United States (2) burden of proof in accrual method (2) business (1) Business Economics (3) Business Economics notes (4) buy bust operation (1) Calculation of Risk (1) Calimutan v. People (1) Caltex v. CA (1) Caltex (Phils.) Inc. v. CA and Security Bank and Trust Co (1) Caltex v Sulpicio Lines (1) Calvo v UCPB Gen Insurance Co (1) Caneda Jr. v. CA (2) caneda v ca (1) Cangco v MRR (1) canlas v ca (1) capital asset (2) Capital Insurance Surety Co Inc v Plastic Era (1) capital loss (2) Carlos Arcona y Moban v CA (1) carriage (1) CARRIAGE OF GOODS BY SEA ACT (2) Carrier or Depositary (1) Carry-over (2) case (6) Case C-168/ (1) Case Digest (377) case digests (9) case digst (1) Case Method Notes (1) case overview (1) cases (34) Cases where Moral Damage is allowed (1) Cases where Moral damages are allowed (1) Cebu International Finance Corp. v. CA (2) cenomar (1) centennial prayer (1) Centralized Management Doctrine (2) Cerrano v Tan (1) certainty (2) Certificate of stock (2) Cha v CA (1) characteristics of human rights (4) characterization (2) charter party (4) Checks (14) chico-nazario (1) china banking corp v. ca (2) Ching v. Sec. of Justice (3) CIA Maritima v. Insurance Co (2) cir v Lincoln Philippine Life Insurance (1) cir v. acosta (2) CIR v. Aichi Forging Company (2010) (2) cir v. estate of benigno toda jr (2) CIR v. Isabela Cultural Corp. (2) CIR v. Mirant (2011) (2) citizen suit (2) Civil Code (1) civil law review (5) civil procedure (3) civil procedure codals (1) Civil Procedure Notes Outline (1) claim for refund (3) Clear Provision Given Ordinary Meaning (1) Co v. Admiral United Savings Bank (2) Codals (2) Code of Professional Responsibility (1) codoy v calugay (1) cogsa (1) Cometa v CA (1) commerce (1) commercial law (2) commercial law review (1) commercial law reviewer (1) commodatum (1) common grammatical error (2) complete list (1) Complex Electric v NLRC (1) concept of moral damages (1) conflict of law case digest (3) conflict of laws (12) conflicts of law Notes Outline (1) conflicts of laws (2) conflicts of laws review (2) congress (1) connecting factor (2) consideration (25) Consolidated Bank v. CA (1) Consolidated Plywood v. IFC (2) conspiracy (4) Constantino v Asia Life Insurance Co (1) Constitution (2) constitutional law (7) consummated crime (2) contract of adhesion (2) Contracting Parties (3) Coquia v Fieldmens Insurance Co Inc (1) cornelio amaro v Ambrocio Sumanguit (1) coronel v ca (1) corporate criminal liability (4) Corporate Law (81) Corporate Law Case Digest (42) Corporate Law Notes (6) Corporate Law Notes Outline (1) corporate negligence (1) Corporate Officers or employees (3) Corporation by estoppel doctrine (2) court (1) court of tax appeal (1) courts (1) cover notes (1) coverage (1) credit in life and health insurance (1) credit transactions (12) crim law 1 (65) crim pro (1) criminal acts not immune (2) criminal law (10) criminal liability (1) criminal procedure (17) criminal procedure case digest (3) Crismina Garments v CA (1) cruz v villasor (1) cta findings (2) cta jurisdiction (1) cuevas v achacoso (1) Damages (4) Dangwa Transportation Co. Inc. v. CA (2) Datu Tagoranao Benito v. SEC (2) davao gulf lumber corporation v. cir (2) DBP v CA (1) de castro (1) de la cruz v capital ins (1) De la Pena v CA (1) De los Santos v. Republic (2) Dealings Between Corporation and Stockholders (2) Dealings with Corp. and Stockholders (2) death certificate (1) December 10 (2) December 12 (1) December 14 (4) December 16 (5) December 17 (5) December 18 (2) December 2 (2) December 20 (5) December 21 (6) December 23 (2) December 27 (1) December 28 (2) December 29 (5) December 3 (2) December 7 (1) December 8 (5) December 9 (2) deductibility of bad debts (2) Dee v. SEC (2) Defective attempt to form (2) defense of stranger (1) defenses (2) Definition and Concept of Damages (2) Definition and Coverage of Casualty Insurance (2) Definition and Coverage of Life Insurance (1) Definition of a Close Corporation (2) definition of felony (2) Degrees of Negligence (2) Del Rosario v CA (1) Del Rosario v Equitable Ins. and Casualty Co (1) Del Val v Del Val (1) delfin lim v Francisco Ponce De Leon (1) Delgado Brothers (2) demand (1) Demand and Supply Analysis (2) deposits (1) Dereliction of Duty (1) Determinants (1) digest (2) direct injury test (4) Director of Lands v. CA (2) Director of Lands v. IAC (2) Discharge of instrument (2) disorder in the court (1) Disqualification (1) divorce (2) Doctor (1) Doctrine of exhaustion (1) Doctrine of Piercing (1) Doctrine of Processual Presumption (1) documents processing (1) Doing an Insurance Business (1) donation (4) dorotheo v ca (1) Double insurance (1) double taxation (1) due process (5) Dy v. People (2) Edward J. Nell Co. v. Pacific Farms Inc (2) Effect of Change of Interest (1) Effect of Change of Interest in Thing Insured (2) Effect of Lack of Insurable Interest (3) effect of non payment (2) Effect of Payment (1) effect of transfer (1) El Oriente Fabrica de Tabacos Inc v Posadas (1) Election of Directors; Vacancy in the Board (2) Elements (2) elements of quasi delict (3) emergency rule (1) en banc (74) Enervida v dela Torre (1) Engada v CA (1) english 101 (2) enriquez v abadia (1) Enriquez v Sun Life Assurance (1) environmental law (2) equilibrium (1) Equitable PCI Bank v. Ong (2) erap v sandiganbayan (2) Ernesto Medina v Hon Floreliana Castro-Bartolome (1) estafa (2) estate (1) estate tax (2) estoppel (5) Estoppel and credit extension (2) estoppel applies in CTA tax disputes (1) Eternal Gardens Memorial Park Corp v Philippine American Life Insurance (1) Everett Streamship Corp. v. CA (2) Evident Premeditation (2) EX criminally liable civilly liable (2) Exception to Ambiguous Provisions Interpreted Against Insurer (1) exception to perfection (1) Exceptions to Contracting Parties (4) executive department (2) exhaust administrative claim (1) Exhaust Administrative Claim Before Judicial Claim (1) existing interest (5) expenses (2) expert and professionals (1) Expert Travel v CA (1) experts and professionals (1) Exploitation of Natural Resources (2) extradition (9) extradition process (2) extradition treaty (2) f. Government of the USA v. Hon. Purganan (1) Factors in determining amount (7) FACTS (1) factual situation (2) family code (3) Far East Bank Trust v. Gold Palace Jewelry (2) far eastern university (1) Fausto Barredo v. Severino Garcia (2) fc (1) Feati University v. Bautista (1) Feb. 27 2006 (1) February 12 (2) february 15 (4) February 16 (4) February 18 (4) February 19 (2) February 2 (3) February 21 (2) February 22 (5) February 23 (4) February 24 (2) February 25 (3) February 26 (4) February 27 (7) February 28 (8) February 29 (4) February 4 (2) February 5 (2) February 6 (7) February 7 (2) February 8 (4) February 9 (11) Federico Ylarde v Edgardo Aquino (1) felonies (1) felony (1) fernando v ca (1) feu (1) FGU Insurance Corporation v CA (1) Fictitious Persons (2) Filipinas Compania de Seguros v Christern Henefeld (1) Filipinas Port v. Go (2) Filipinas Synthentic Fiber v. CA (1999) (2) Filipino Merchants Insurance Co v CA (1) first division (54) first part (1) fitness by design v. cir (2) Fleischer v. Botica Nolasco Co (2) foreign policy prerogative (2) foreigner (2) forgery (21) Fortune Insurance and Surety Co v CA (1) forum non conveniens (1) fqs (1) Francisco v GSIS (1) Francisco v. CA (2) fraud (1) Frustrated (2) frustrated or consummated theft (2) Fuentes v CA (1) Fule v CA (1) Fully Paid Shares (1) G. R. No. 160188 (1) G. R. No. 116320 (1) G. R. No. 160188 (1) G. R. No. 164317 (1) G. R. No. 164317 February 6 (2) G.R. 79050-51 (1) G.R. No 48196 (2) G.R. No. 146635 (2) G.R. No. 166862 (1) G.R. No. 168100 November 20 (1) G.R. No. 101083 (2) G.R. No. 101163 (2) G.R. No. 101503 (2) G.R. No. 102253 (2) G.r. No. 102342 (2) G.R. No. 102383 (2) G.R. No. 103119 (2) G.R. No. 103379 (2) G.R. No. 103554 (1) G.R. No. 103577 (1) G.R. No. 104376 (1) G.R. No. 104376 February 23 (1) G.R. No. 105562 (2) G.R. No. 105774 (2) G.R. No. 105836 (2) G.R. No. 106720 (1) G.R. No. 107062 (2) G.R. No. 107382 (1) G.R. No. 107382/G.R. No. 107612 (1) G.R. No. 107508 (2) G.R. No. 107518 (2) G.R. No. 107612 (1) G.R. No. 108017 (2) G.R. No. 108581 (1) G.R. No. 109491 (1) G.R. No. 111584 (2) G.R. No. 111692 (2) G.R. No. 112024 (2) G.R. No. 112160 (3) G.R. No. 112212 (2) G.R. No. 112287 (1) G.R. No. 112287 December 12 (1) G.R. No. 112392 (2) G.R. No. 112573 (2) G.R. No. 113213 (1) G.R. No. 113578 (2) G.R. No. 113725 (1) G.R. No. 113899 (1) G.R. No. 114061 (3) G.R. No. 114118 (2) G.R. No. 115024 (1) G.R. No. 115117 (2) G.R. No. 115156 (2) G.R. No. 115278 (2) G.R. No. 116320 (1) G.R. No. 116736 (2) G.R. No. 117359 (2) G.R. No. 117660 (2) G.R. No. 118325 (2) G.R. No. 118342 (1) G.R. No. 118357 (2) G.R. No. 118794 (2) G.R. No. 119176 (2) G.R. No. 120135 (2) G.R. No. 120262 (2) G.R. No. 120554 (2) G.R. No. 120706 (2) G.R. No. 120988 (2) G.R. No. 121315 (2) G.R. No. 121413 (2) G.R. No. 121479 (1) G.R. No. 121828 (2) G.R. No. 121998 (2) G.R. No. 122099 (2) G.R. No. 122191 (2) G.R. No. 122494 (2) G.R. No. 122880 (1) G.R. No. 123031 (2) G.R. No. 123404 (2) G.R. No. 123486 (1) G.R. No. 124050 (2) G.R. No. 124062 (2) G.R. No. 124099 (1) G.R. No. 124354 (2) G.R. No. 124371 (2) G.R. No. 124520 (2) G.R. No. 125508 (2) G.R. No. 125678 (2) G.R. No. 125835 (1) G.R. No. 125851 (2) G.R. No. 125865 (2) G.R. No. 126204 (2) G.R. No. 126297 (3) G.R. No. 126405 (1) G.R. No. 126518 (2) G.R. No. 126670 December 2 (2) G.R. No. 127326 (2) G.R. No. 127823 (2) G.R. No. 128286 (2) G.R. No. 128604 (1) G.R. No. 128690 (2) G.R. No. 128721 (2) G.R. No. 129433 (2) G.R. No. 129459 (2) G.R. No. 129584 (2) G.R. No. 129792 (2) G.R. No. 129910 (2) G.R. No. 130030 (2) G.R. No. 130421 (2) G.R. No. 131166 (1) G.R. No. 131621 (1) G.R. No. 132403 (2) G.R. No. 132419 (2) G.R. No. 133179 (2) G.R. No. 133632 (2) G.R. No. 134784 (2) G.R. No. 136448 (1) G.R. No. 136448 November 3 (1) G.R. No. 136729 (2) G.R. No. 137775 (1) G.R. No. 138033 (2) G.R. No. 138074 (2) G.R. No. 138322 (1) G.R. No. 138510 (2) G.R. No. 138569 (2) G.R. No. 138739 (2) G.R. No. 139325 (2) G.R. No. 139465 (1) G.R. NO. 139802 (2) G.R. No. 140006-10 (2) G.R. No. 140047 (2) G.R. No. 140698 (3) G.R. No. 140707 (2) G.R. No. 142616 (2) G.R. No. 143838 (2) G.R. No. 144476 (2) G.R. No. 145804 (3) G.R. No. 146511 (2) G.R. NO. 146779 (2) G.R. No. 147188 (2) G.R. No. 147746 (2) G.R. No. 147839 (2) G.R. No. 148083 (2) G.R. No. 148132 (1) G.R. No. 148211 (2) G.R. No. 148444 (1) G.R. No. 148496 (1) G.R. No. 148560 (2) G.R. No. 148571 (1) G.R. No. 149038 (2) G.R. No. 151079 (1) G.R. No. 151445 April 11 (1) G.R. No. 151445 April 11 (1) G.R. No. 151969 (2) G.R. No. 152133 (2) G.R. No. 153675 (1) G.R. No. 153898 October 18 (2) G.R. No. 154068 (2) G.R. No. 154127 (2) G.R. No. 154469 (2) G.R. No. 154514 (1) G.R. No. 154740 (2) G.R. No. 15566 (1) G.R. No. 155791 (2) G.R. No. 156167 (2) G.R. No. 156207 (2) G.R. No. 156294 (2) G.R. No. 157216 (2) G.R. No. 157309 (2) G.R. No. 157451 (1) G.R. No. 157547 (2) G.R. No. 157833 (1) G.R. No. 157906 (3) G.R. No. 157977 (1) G.R. No. 158262 (2) G.R. No. 158312 (2) G.R. No. 159747 (1) G.R. No. 161886 (1) G.R. No. 162230 (2) G.R. No. 163583 (1) G.R. No. 163583 August 20 (1) G.R. No. 1641 (1) G.R. No. 165109 (2) G.R. No. 165300 (1) G.R. No. 165483 (2) G.R. No. 165546 (2) G.R. No. 165842 (2) G.R. No. 165993 (2) G.R. No. 166006 March 14 (2) G.R. No. 166006 March 14 (1) G.R. No. 166245 (2) G.R. No. 166326 (2) G.R. No. 166405 (2) G.R. No. 166479 (2) G.R. No. 167330 (2) g.r. no. 167571 (1) G.R. No. 168100 November 20 (1) G.R. No. 168115 (2) G.R. No. 168118 (2) G.R. No. 168274 (2) G.R. No. 168402 (2) G.R. No. 170257 (2) G.R. No. 170325 (2) G.R. No. 170984 (2) G.R. No. 171052 (2) G.R. No. 172231 (2) G.R. No. 172896 (2) G.R. No. 172966 (2) G.R. No. 173594 (1) G.R. No. 173915 (1) G.R. No. 174489 (1) G.R. No. 176165 (2) G.R. No. 176831 (1) G.R. No. 177982 (2) G.R. No. 178090 (2) G.R. No. 178523 (2) G.R. No. 17958 (2) G.R. No. 179859 (1) G.R. No. 180356 (2) G.R. No. 181132 (2) G.R. No. 182963 (1) G.R. No. 183526 (1) G.R. No. 183905 (2) G.R. No. 184823 (2) G.R. No. 194515 (2) G.R. No. 20341 (2) G.R. No. 23703 (2) G.R. No. 34774 (2) G.R. No. 44119 (2) G.R. No. 48541 (2) G.R. No. 6659 (2) G.R. No. 71871 (1) G.R. No. 72110 (2) G.R. No. 72593 (2) G.R. No. 73886 (2) G.R. No. 74695 (1) G.R. No. 74761 (2) G.R. No. 74886 (2) G.R. No. 75605 (2) G.R. No. 76452 (2) G.R. No. 76788 (2) G.R. No. 80294-95 (1) G.R. No. 80447 (2) G.R. No. 81322 (2) G.R. No. 83122 (2) G.R. No. 84197 (1) G.R. No. 84197 July 28 (2) G.R. No. 85141 (3) G.R. No. 88724 (2) G.R. No. 88866 (2) G.R. No. 89802 (2) G.R. No. 89880 (2) G.R. No. 92087 (1) G.R. No. 92244 (2) G.R. No. 92288 (3) G.R. No. 93048 (2) G.R. No. 93073 (2) G.R. No. 93397 (2) G.R. No. 93695 (2) G.R. No. 94071 (2) G.R. No. 95322 (2) G.R. No. 95529 (2) G.R. No. 95546 (1) G.R. No. 95582 (3) G.R. No. 95641 (2) G.R. No. 95696 (2) G.R. No. 95696. March 3 (2) G.R. No. 97336 (2) G.R. No. 97626 (2) G.R. No. 97753 (2) G.R. No. 99301 (2) G.R. No. L-12189 (2) G.R. No. L-12190 (1) G.R. No. L-12191 (2) G.R. No. L-12219 (2) G.R. No. L-12736 (2) G.R. No. L-12858 (2) G.R. No. L-12907 (2) G.R. No. L-13005 (1) G.R. No. L-14003 (1) G.R. No. L-14074 (1) G.R. No. L-14300 (2) G.R. No. L-14441 (1) G.R. No. L-14441 December 17 (1) G.R. No. L-14986 (2) G.R. No. L-15126 (2) G.R. No. L-15184 (2) G.R. No. L-15894 (2) G.R. No. L-15895 (2) G.R. No. L-16138 (2) G.R. No. L-16215 (2) G.R. No. L-16567 (2) G.R. No. L-1669 (2) G.R. No. L-16749 (1) G.R. No. L-17312 (1) G.R. No. L-17474 (2) G.R. No. L-17845 (2) G.R. No. L-18216 (2) G.R. No. L-18287 (2) G.R. No. L-18657 (2) G.R. No. L-18924 (2) G.R. No. L-18965 (3) G.R. No. L-18979 (1) G.R. No. L-19189 (2) G.R. No. L-19550 (2) G.R. No. L-20081 (2) G.R. No. L-20357 (1) G.R. No. L-20434 (2) G.R. No. L-20850 (2) G.R. No. L-20853 (2) G.R. No. L-21278 (2) G.R. No. L-21291 (2) G.R. No. L-21380 (2) G.R. No. L-21462 (2) G.R. No. L-21500 (2) G.R. No. L-21574 (2) G.R. No. L-21642 (2) G.R. No. L-22042 (2) G.R. No. L-2227 (2) G.R. No. L-22375 (1) G.R. No. L-22554 (2) G.R. No. L-22595 (1) G.R. No. L-22796 (2) G.R. No. L-2294 (2) G.R. No. L-23145 (1) G.R. No. L-23145 November 29 (2) G.R. No. L-23241 (2) G.R. No. L-23276 (2) G.R. No. L-23678 (2) G.R. No. L-24803 (2) G.R. No. L-24978 (2) G.R. No. L-25317 (2) G.R. No. L-25845 (2) G.R. No. L-25920 (2) G.R. No. L-2662 (2) G.R. No. L-26743 (2) G.R. No. L-26767 (2) G.R. No. L-27155 (2) G.R. No. L-28093 (2) G.R. No. L-28120 (2) G.R. No. L-2855 (2) G.R. No. L-2861 (2) G.R. No. L-28673 (2) G.R. No. L-28946 (1) G.R. No. L-29276 (2) G.R. No. L-29432 (2) G.R. No. L-30389 (2) G.R. No. L-30896 (1) G.R. No. L-31195 (2) G.R. No. L-32213 (1) G.R. No. L-32611 (2) G.R. No. L-33171 (2) G.R. No. L-3362 (1) G.R. No. L-33722 (2) G.R. No. L-34539 (2) G.R. No. L-34539 July 14 (1) G.R. No. L-3497 (1) G.R. No. L-35095 (2) G.R. No. L-35262 (2) G.R. No. L-35283 (2) G.R. No. L-36481-2 (2) G.R. No. L-37750 (2) G.R. No. L-38037 (2) G.R. No. L-38338 (1) G.R. No. L-38613 (2) G.R. No. L-38684 (2) G.R. No. L-38816 (2) G.R. No. L-39050 (2) G.R. No. L-39247 (2) G.R. No. L-39419 (2) G.R. No. L-40207 (1) G.R. No. L-4067 (1) G.R. No. L-40796 (2) G.R. No. L-4170 (1) G.R. No. L-4197 (2) G.R. No. L-42462 (2) G.R. No. L-4254 (2) G.R. No. L-43191 (2) G.R. No. L-43596 (1) G.R. No. L-44059 (2) G.R. No. L-44837 (1) G.R. No. L-45637 (2) G.R. No. L-46061 (2) G.R. No. L-4611 (1) G.R. No. L-46558 (2) G.R. No. L-4722 (2) G.R. No. L-47722 (2) G.R. No. L-47739 (2) G.R. No. L-48006 (3) G.R. No. L-4818 (2) G.R. No. L-48195 (2) G.R. No. L-48250 (2) G.R. No. L-48321 (1) G.R. No. L-48757 (3) G.R. No. L-48796 (2) G.R. No. L-49101 (2) G.R. No. L-49188 (2) G.R. No. L-49390 (2) G.R. No. L-4963 (1) G.R. No. L-4977 (2) G.R. No. L-50373 (2) G.R. No. L-50959 (2) G.R. No. L-51806 (2) G.R. No. L-51832 (2) G.R. No. L-5270 (2) G.R. No. L-5272 (4) G.R. No. L-5377 (1) G.R. No. L-54216 (2) G.R. No. L-55079 (2) G.R. No. L-55397 (2) G.R. No. L-56169 June 26 (1) G.R. No. L-56487 (2) G.R. No. L-56655 (2) G.R. No. L-5715 (2) G.R. No. L-58509 (1) G.R. No. L-58867 (2) G.R. No. L-5887 (2) G.R. No. L-59825 (2) G.R. No. L-59919 (2) G.R. No. L-60502 (2) G.R. No. L-6055 (2) G.R. No. L-6114 (2) G.R. No. L-62943 (2) G.R. No. L-6442 (1) G.R. No. L-67626 (2) G.R. No. L-67835 (2) G.R. No. L-6801 (1) G.R. No. L-69044 (1) G.R. No. L-7188 (1) G.R. No. L-7664 (2) G.R. No. L-7667 (2) G.R. No. L-7760 (2) G.R. No. L-7991 (2) G.R. No. L-8110 (2) G.R. No. L-81827 (3) G.R. No. L-8385 (2) G.R. No. L-8451 (2) G.R. No. L-8527 (1) G.R. No. L-8844 (2) G.R. No. L-9356 (2) G.R. No. L-9374 (2) G.R. No. L-9401 (2) G.R. No. L-9671 (1) G.R. No.113558 (1) G.R. No.148496 (1) G.R. No.L-17312 (1) G.R. No.L-4611 (1) G.R. Nos. 105965-70 (1) G.R. Nos. 113255-56 (2) G.R. Nos. 118498 & 124377 (2) G.R. Nos. 128833 (1) G.R. Nos. L-21353 and L-21354 (2) G.R. Nos. L-25836-37 (2) G.R. Nos. L-28324-5 (2) G.R.No. 113899 (1) G.R.No. 115024 (2) G.R.No. 118367 (1) G.R.No. 131166 (1) G.R.No. 137775 (1) G.R.No. 154514 (1) G.R.No. 159747 (1) G.R.No. L-22375 (1) G.R.No. L-9671 (1) G.R.No.113558 (1) G.R.Nos. 128833 (1) gaap (2) Gaisano Cagayan v Insurance Company of North America (1) gallardo v morales (1) gan v yap (1) Ganzon v. CA (2) Garcia – Recio v Recio (1) Garcia – Recio vs Recio (1) garcia v gatchalian (1) Garcia v Hongkong Fire Marine Insurance Co (1) garcia v lacuesta (1) Garcia v. Llamas (2) Gashem Shookat Baksh v CA (1) Gatbonton v. NLRC and Mapua (2) Gatchalian v Delim (1) Gelano v. CA (2) Gempesaw v. CA (2) General Indorser (3) general power of appointment (2) General Principles on Insurance (4) General Provisions (2) generally accepted international law (2) Gercio v. Sun Life Assurance Co. of Canada (1) German Garcia v The Hon Mariano M Florido et al (1) gil v murciano (1) gilchrist v cuddy (1) golden notes (1) Gonzales v. RCBC (2) Good Father of a Family (3) GR 138322 (1) GR No. 139465 (1) GR No. L-26001 (2) Gr. No. 113213 (1) GR. NO. 148571 (1) GR. NO. 153675 (1) GR. NO. 157977 (1) grammar (2) grammar rules (2) grammatical error (2) grand union supermarket v jose espino (1) grandfather rule (2) Great Asian Sales Center Corp. v. CA (2) Great Eastern Life Ins. Co. v. Hongkong Shanghai Bank (2) Great Pacific Life Assurance Corp v CA (1) GSIS v. CA (1) guide (1) guingon v Del Monte (1) Gulf Resorts Inc v Philippine Charter Insurance Corp (1) Gullas v. PNB (2) he or she (1) Heirs of Borlado v Vda De Bulan (1) Heirs of Loreto C. Maramag v Maramag (1) heirs of pdro tayag v hon fernando alcantara (1) Hi Cement Corp. v. Insular Bank (1) Hi-Cement Corp. v. Insular Bank (1) him or her (1) Holder in Due Course (2) honasan case (1) Honasan v The Panel of Investigating Prosecutor (1) hong kong v. hon olalia jr (1) Hong Kong v. Hon. Olalia Jr. (1) human rights (11) human rights law (13) human rights law case digest (7) icasiano v icasiano (1) Ilano v. CA (2) illegal provision in a will (1) illegitimate children (1) imelda marcos (1) immediate cause of which was the peril insured against (1) importance of accounting (1) in contemplation of death (2) In Re Mario v Chanliongco (1) in re will of riosa (1) Inc (4) Inc v Home Insurance (2) Inc v. CA (2) Inc v. Register of Deeds of Manila (2) Inc. v. CA (2) incapable of pecuniary estimation (1) income tax (2) Incomplete instruments (2) indeterminate sentence law (4) insanity (1) installment sales law (1) Insular Drugs v. PNB (2) insular life assurance co v ebrado (1) insurance (134) insurance act (1) insurance agent (1) Insurance Broker (1) insurance case digest (72) insurance code (5) insurance law reviewer (2) insurance notes (3) insurance notes outline (3) Insurance reviewer (1) Insured Outlives Policy (1) Integrated Packing v CA (1) intent (2) interest (1) interest of 20% (1) Interference with Contractual Relations (2) International Corp. Bank v. CA (2) international law (1) international law vs municipal law (1) International taxation (2) interpretation of treaties (1) intod v. ca (2) intoxication (1) Introduction to Negotiable Instruments (6) Invalid Designation (4) inventory (2) invoice requirements (2) IPL (2) IPL case digest (2) Irrevocable Designation (2) Isaac v AL Ammen Trans Co (1) j marketing v Sia (1) jaboneta v gustilo (1) Jai-Alai Corp. of the Phil. v. BPI (2) Jan 18 (1) Jan. 18 (1) January 11 (2) January 15 (3) January 16 (1) January 18 (2) January 19 (5) January 21 (4) January 22 (5) January 23 (2) January 25 (2) January 28 (9) January 29 (9) January 30 (10) January 31 (13) January 5 (2) jarco marketing v ca (1) Joaquinita P Capili v Sps Dominador and Rosalita Cardana (1) judge fernando vil pamintuan (1) judicial claim (1) Judicial Construction Cannot Alter Terms (1) judicial declaration of presumptive death (1) July 11 (2) July 13 (1) July 14 (7) July 16 (1) July 17 (2) July 18 (2) July 19 (8) July 20 (2) July 21 (4) July 23 (4) July 24 (2) July 26 (2) July 27 (2) July 28 (3) July 29 (2) july 3 (2) July 30 (9) July 31 (10) July 5 (2) July 6 (2) July 8 (3) June 11 (2) June 12 (2) June 15 (2) June 16 (2) June 19 (4) June 2 (2) june 20 (3) June 21 (2) June 22 (4) June 25 (2) June 26 (2) June 27 (4) June 28 (2) June 29 (3) June 30 (5) June 5 (4) June 6 (2) June 8 (5) Juris Doctor (660) jurisdiction (7) jurisprudence (425) Jurisprudence: G.R. No. 153468 (2) Jurisprudence: G.R. No. 173594 (1) kalaw v relova (1) kapunan (1) Kierulf v CA (1) Kinds (1) kinds of damage (1) Korean Airlines Co. LTd v. CA (2) kuroda v jalandoni (2) labor (4) labor law (4) labor relations (2) Lambert v. Fox (2) Lampano v. Jose (1) Land Titles and Deeds (14) Land Titles and Deeds Case Digest (7) Land Titles and Deeds Notes (5) Land Titles and Deeds Notes Outline (1) lanters products inc v ca (1) last clear chance (6) law (4) law reviewer (1) law reviewer political law (2) laws (2) lawyer (2) lawyer laughs (1) lawyers code (1) lawyers code of professional responsibility (1) lawyers oath (1) lawyers pledge (1) Lazatin v Twano (1) Lee v. CA (2) legal effect (3) legal ethics (1) legal jokes (2) legal period (2) legal updates (1) legitimation (2) lethal ethics (1) Lex Posterioni Derogati Priori (2) Liabilities (1) Liabilities did not sign (1) Liabilities of Parties (2) Liabilities of person who did not sign (1) liabilities of the parties (17) Liability for Torts (4) liability of an agent (2) liability of insurer for suicide and accidental death (1) Liang v. People (2) lifeblood theory (2) Lim v. Executive Secretary (2) litonjua v montilla (1) llorente v ca (1) Llorente vs CA (1) locus standi (2) Lopez v Del Rosario and Quiogue (1) Lopez v Pan American (1) loss (1) loss caused by negligence of the insurance (1) LRTA v. Navidad (2) Magellan Mfg Marketing Corp v CA (1) Makati Sports Club Inc v. Cecile Cheng (2) mala in se (2) Malayan Insurance v CA (1) Malayan Insurance Co v Arnaldo (1) malice (3) malum prohibitum (2) mamba v. lara (2) Manila Bank v. CIR (2006) (2) Manila Lighter Transportation Inc. v. CA (2) Manila Metal Container Corp. v. PNB (1) Manuel v. People (2) Marcelo Macalinao v Eddie Medecielo Ong (1) March 1 (3) March 13 (2) March 14 (5) March 15 (4) March 16 (3) March 18 (2) March 19 (8) March 2 (2) March 20 (3) March 22 (2) March 24 (2) March 26 (4) March 27 (6) March 28 (7) March 3 (4) March 30 (9) March 31 (7) March 7 (2) March 9 (4) marcos (1) Marcos v. Judge Fernando Vil. Pamintuan (1) Maria Benita A. Dulay v The Court of Appeals (1) marinduque v workmens (1) marriage (2) marriage certificate (1) martial law (1) master of business and administration (1) Maulini v. Serrano (2) May 1 (2) May 16 (2) May 18 (5) May 19 (4) may 20 (4) May 23 (2) May 25 (2) May 26 (2) May 28 (1) May 29 (3) may 30 (3) May 31 (6) May 6 (2) May 8 (4) May 9 (2) MBA (5) MBA Notes (4) mcit (2) me or I (1) measure of indemnity (1) measure of insurable interest (1) mejoff v. director of prisons (4) Memorize (1) memory aid (4) mercantile law (8) mercantile law review (3) Merida Waterworks District v. Bacarro (2) Metrobank v. CA (2) Metrobank v. FNCB (2) Metropolitan Bank and Trust Co. v. Cablizo (2) miciano v brimo (1) Mijares v CA (1) Mijares v. Ranada (2005) (1) Miranda Ribaya v Carbonell (1) Misamis Lumber Corp. v. Capital Ins and Surety Co (1) mistake of fact (4) mistake of fact is not a defense (2) mitigating circumstances (2) Mitigation of Liability (1) Montinola v. PNB (2) Moral Damage for Labor Cases (1) moral damages (1) Moral Damages on Taking of Life (2) Moran v. CA and Citytrust Bank (2) morgan v commissioner (2) mortgage (2) mortgagor (4) mortis causa (2) motion jokes (1) motive (2) Motor Vehicle Liability Insurance (2) Mr. and Mrs. Amador C Ong v Metropolitan Water District (1) Murder (2) mutual insurance companies (1) MWSS v. CA (2) Nario v Philippine American Life Insurance Co of Canada (1) National Power v Philipp Brothers (1) national steel corp v ca (1) Natividad V. Andamo v IAC (1) naturalization (1) Nature of Certificate of Stock (4) Nava v. Peers Marketing Corp (2) Negotiable Instruments (4) Negotiable Instruments Case Digest (76) Negotiable Instruments Codals (2) Negotiable Instruments Law (143) Negotiable Instruments Memorize (1) Negotiable Instruments Notes (8) Negotiable Instruments Notes Outline (1) negotiation (1) nepomuceno v ca (1) New Life Enterprises v Court of Appeals (1) No conflicts rule on essential validity of contracts (1) no designation (1) No frustrated rape (2) nocon (1) Northwest Orient Airlines Inc v CA (1) notes (2) notice and hearing (1) Notice of Dishonor (4) November 1 (1) November 14 (6) November 16 (2) November 19 (4) November 2 (3) November 20 (4) November 23 (5) November 25 (3) November 26 (5) November 27 (2) November 28 (5) November 29 (16) November 3 (5) November 30 (2) November 5 (2) November 6 (4) November 7 (1) November 8 (2) nso (1) nso documents (1) nterpretation of treaties (1) October 1 (2) October 10 (3) October 12 (6) October 13 (2) October 14 (2) October 15 (1) October 17 (2) October 18 (2) October 19 (5) October 2 (2) October 21 (4) October 23 (4) October 24 (2) October 25 (6) October 28 (2) October 30 (6) October 31 (1) October 6 (2) october 7 (2) October 8 (6) offset if intimately related (1) Oh Cho v. Director of Lands (1) Ong Lim Sing v. FEB Leasing Finance Corp. (1) Ong Yong v. Tiu (2) oposo v factoran (1) opposo v factoran (1) opulencia v ca (1) ortega v valmonte (1) other (3) others (1) Outline (7) Overbreadth doctrine (2) P.D. 1529 (1) Pacheco v. CA (2) Pacific Timber v CA (1) Padgett v. Babcock (2) PAL v CA (2) Palileo v Cosio (1) Palting v. San Jose Petroleum (2) panaguiton jr v doj (1) Panasonic v. CIR (2010) (1) Paris-Manila Perfume Co v Phoenix Assurance (1) part 1 (2) part 2 (2) part 3 (2) part 4 (1) part four (1) Part One (2) part three (3) part two (1) passers (2) payment for honor (2) pb com v. cir (2) pd 1069 (1) PDIC (1) pecuniary interest (1) pedro elcano v regina hill (1) penalties of 25% surcharge (1) People v Bagayong (1) people v. ah chong (2) people v. basao (2) People v. Campuhan (2) People v. Daleba (2) People v. Dela Cruz (1) People v. Domasian (2) People v. Fernando (2) people v. go shiu ling (2) people v. gonzales (1) People v. Lol-lo & Saraw (2) people v. marco (2) People v. Oanis (2) People v. Opero (2) people v. orita (2) People v. Ortega (2) People v. Pagador (2) People v. Palaganas (2) People v. Piliin (2) People v. Pilola (2) People v. Quasha (2) people v. sia (1) People v. Tan Boon Kong (2) people v. wong cheng (2) perez v ca (2) perfection (2) Perla Compania De Seguros v Sps Gaudencio (1) Personal Injury and Death (2) Personal Notes (27) personally liable (1) persons (20) persons case digest (3) persons cases (1) persons secondarily liable (1) Phil American Life Insurance Company v Ansaldo (1) Phil Export v VP Eusebio (1) phil refining company v. ca (1) phil. refining company v. ca (1) Philamcare Health Systems (2) philippine (1) Philippine Airlines v. CA (3) Philippine American Life Insurance Company v Pineda (1) Philippine Bank of Commerce v. Jose M. Aruego (2) philippine blooming mills employment organization v. philippine blooming mills (2) Philippine Commercial International Bank v CA (1) Philippine Commercial v CA (1) philippine health care providers v estrada (1) philippine lawyer (2) philippine lawyers oath (1) Philippine National Bank v. Erlando Rodriguez (1) Philippine Phoenix Surety Insurance Co v Woodworks Inc (1) Philippine Pryce Assurance Corp v CA (1) Physical Injuries (2) pil (5) pila (9) pineda v ca (1) pink notes (1) Pioneer Insurance v. CA (2) Pirovano v. De la Rama Steamship Co. (2) planters product v. fertiphil corp (1) Planters Product v. Fertiphil Corp. (1) PNB v (2) pnb v ca (1) PNB v. CA (6) PNB v. National City Bank New York (2) PNB v. Ritratto Group (2) PNOC v CA (1) poeple v pirame (1) political law review (2) Ponce v. Alsons Cement Corp. (2) Porfirio P. Cinco v Hon Mateo Canonoy (1) possessory action (1) Potenciano v. Reynoso (1) Powers of Corporate Officers (2) prayer (1) Pre-Corporation Code (2) Pre-incorporation Subscription (2) Preemptive Rights (4) prescription (1) Prescription Period (2) Presentment for acceptance (2) Presentment for Payment (2) preterition of surviving spouse (1) primary jurisdiction (2) private suit (2) pro reo doctrine (1) producers bank v ca (1) Professional Services (2) Professional Services Inc v Natividad and Enrique Agana (1) Promissory Notes (14) Proof and Proximate Cause (5) proof beyond reasonable doubt (2) proof of filiation (6) prosecution of offenses (4) Protest (2) proximate cause (6) Prudencio v. CA (2) Prudential Bank v. IAC (2) PUBLIC ACT NO. 521 (1) Public Enemy (1) Public humiliation (2) public international law (12) public international law case (7) public international law case digest (7) public suit (2) Public Utilities (2) Purchase Agreement (2) Qua Chee Gan v Law Union and Rock Insurance Co Ltd (1) qualified by (1) quasi delict (5) Quasi-delict (7) Quasi-negotiable Character of Certificate of Stock (2) Quinto v. Andres (2) Quirante v IAC (1) R.A. 8799 (1) Raagas v Traya (1) rabadilla v ca (1) radiowealth finance v. del rosario (2) rafael partricio v ca (1) Ramos v CA (1) Rationale for Centralized Management Doctrine (2) rcbc v. cir (2) Real Estate Mortgage (1) real party in interest (2) red notes (1) refund (1) Registered Lands (1) registration of property (1) reinsurance (1) Release from Subscription Obligation (2) remedial law (7) remedial law digest (2) remedy (2) Remo Jr. v. IAC (2) replevin (1) Republic of the Phils. v. BPI (2) Republic Planters Bank v. CA (2) republic v. bagtas (1) Republic v. Ebrada (2) Requisites of Double insurance (1) Requisites of negotiability (8) Res Ipsa Loquitur (4) res ipso loquitor (1) Restriction on Transfer (2) retroactivity of procedural rules (2) review (1) reviewer (7) revised penal code (2) revised rules of court (1) revocable Designation (1) reyes v ca (1) right against warrantless searches and seizures (2) Right of First Refusal (4) right of subrogation (1) Right of the holder (2) Rights (1) Rights of a holder (2) Rights of Holder (1) Rights of Holder against general indorser (1) Rights of the holder (6) Rights to Certificate of Stock for Fully Paid Shares (1) Rivera v. People (2) Rizal Commercial Banking Corporation v CA (1) rmc (1) rodelas v aranza (1) rodrigo concepcion v ca (1) Rodriguez (2) Rodriguez v. Hon. Presiding Judge of RTC Manila Branch 17 (2) Roman Catholic Apostolic Administrator of Davao v. LRC (2) Roman Catholic Bishop of Malolos v. IAC (2) roxas v de jesus (1) rpc (1) rtc (2) rul 39 (1) rule 110 (3) rule 111 (1) rule 60 (1) rule on summary procedure (1) rules of court (2) Rules on cover notes (1) Sadaya v. Sevilla (2) Salas v. CA (2) sales (1) Sales de Gonzaga v Crown Life Insurance Co (1) samar mining v nordeutcher lloyd (1) san beda (1) san beda law (3) San Carlos Milling v. CIR (2) San Juan Structural v. CA (2) San Miguel Brewery v Law Union (1) sante v. claravall (1) saudi arabian airlines v ca (2) Saura Import Export Co v Philippine International Surety Co (1) sc (1) sc 173 (1) sec 12 (1) sec 13 (1) sec 1314 (1) Sec 17 (1) sec 177 of the insurance code (1) Sec 18 (1) Sec 189 (1) sec 28 (1) sec 77 (2) sec 84 (1) Sec. 1 - 8 (1) Sec. 17 - 23 (1) Sec. 21 (1) Sec. 24 - 29 (1) Sec. 3 (4) Sec. 30-50 (1) Sec. 39 (2) Sec. 51-59 (1) Sec. 9 - 16 (1) Sec. of Justice v. Hon. Lantion (2) Sec.39 (2) SECOND DIVISION (46) second part (1) secondarily liable (1) secs 24 to 29 (1) Section 63 (2) securities and exchange commission (2) securities regulation code (1) Security Bank v. Rizal Commercial (2) Seguritan v. People (2) senator honasan (2) senior citizen discount (2) sentence (1) Sep 21 (1) Separate Juridical Personality (1) Sept. 24 2002 (1) september (1) September 1 (4) September 11 (4) September 12 (2) September 14 (4) September 15 (5) September 16 (2) September 17 (2) September 18 (2) September 21 (5) September 22 (2) September 23 (2) September 24 (1) September 26 (4) September 27 (2) September 28 (6) September 29 (2) september 30 (4) September 4 (2) September 5 (4) September 7 (2) Sharuff Co v Baloise Fire Insurance Co (1) siliman (1) Silkair v. CIR (2) simple loan (2) Singapore Airlines v Hon Ernani Cruz Pano (1) SMART Communications v. Astrorga (1) So Ping Bun v ca (1) Social Security System v Davac (1) South African Airways v. CIR (2010) (2) South Sea Surety and Insurance Co v CA (1) Southern Luzon Employees and Ass v Golpeo (1) Special Rules on Experts and Professionals (2) Spouses Gironella v. PNB (2) src (1) SSS v Aguas (2) St Louis Realty Corporation v ca (1) State Investment House Inc. v. CA (2) stipulation pour autrui (3) Stipulations Cannot Be Segregated (2) Stock and Transfer Book (2) Stockholders of F. Guanzon and Sons (2) Stonehill v. Diokno (2) Strebel v Figueros (1) Strong Juridical Personality (2) study guide (1) sulpicio v ca (2) Sumaplong v CA (1) supply (1) supreme court (3) surety bond (1) sweet lines v teves (1) Tai Tong Chuache v Insurance Commission (1) Tan v. SEC (2) Tan v. Sycip (2) Tanco Jr v Philippine Guaranty Co (1) tax (1) tax 2 (10) tax 2 case digest (5) tax avoidance (2) tax case digest (18) tax credit (3) tax evasion (2) tax exemption (5) tax laws (1) tax refund (7) taxation (23) Tayag v. Benguet (2) teleserv (1) Templation Inc (2) territoriality principle (1) The Universal Declaration on Human Rights (1) Theory of Concession (2) THIRD DIVISION (36) third part (1) tinga (1) Tiong v. Ting (2) To whom insurance proceeds payable (1) top 10 (1) torts (4) torts and damages (172) torts and damages case digest (79) torts and damages notes outline (5) Traders Royal Bank v. CA (2) Traders Royal Bank v. Radio Philippines Network Inc (2) transcendental importance (1) Transfers (2) transportation (53) transportation case digest (27) Transportation notes (1) transportation notes outline (1) Travel-On v. CA (2) Treachery (2) Triple Eight v NLRC (1) Ty v First National Surety and Assurance Co Inc (1) Types of Acquisitions (2) Types of Acquisitions/Transfers (2) U.S. Jurisprudence (1) U.S. v. Bull (2) ultra vires (2) ultra vires act (1) unfair labor practice (2) Unfounded Suits (4) United States v. Wells (2) universal (1) universal declaration on human rights (1) university of the philippines (1) unjust dismissal (2) up law (1) up law review (1) US (4) US Jurisprudence (2) us v baggay (1) us v pineda (1) us v. ah sing (1) us v. look chaw (2) USA v. Hon. Purganan (1) uson v del rosario (1) ust (1) ust golden notes (1) ust notes (1) uy kaio eng v nixon lee (1) uy v sandiganbayan (1) valenzuela v ca (2) Valenzuela v. People (2) Valle Verde Country Club v. Africa (2) Vda Dde Consuegra v Governments Service Insurance System (1) Velasco v. People (2) Velasquez v. Solidbank Corp (2) Verendia v CA (1) Vicente R. de Ocampo v. Gatchalian (2) Villanueva v Oro (1) Villanueva v. Nite (2) Vinuya v. Malaya Lolas Organization (2) Violago v. BA Finance Corp (2) Violation of Civil and Political Rights (1) Violation of Human Dignity and Privacy (2) Voluntary Dealings (1) Voting Trust Agreements (2) waiver (2) Wee Sion Ben v. Semexco/Zest Markering Corp (2) when corporate officers (1) When Insurable Interest Must Exist (1) when negligent (2) White Gold Marine Services Inc v Pioneer Insurance Surety Corp (1) Who are liable after dissolution (2) Who Exercises Rights of Minor Insured or Beneficiaries (1) Who may recover (3) who or whom (1) wills and succession (38) withholding agent (2) Wright v Manila Electric (1) Wright v. CA (1) writing (1) Yang v. CA (2) you and i (1) you and me (1) zaldiva v reyes (1) zero rated (1)