Like us on Facebook

Please wait..10 Seconds Cancel

Constitutional Law Case Digest: De Lima v. Pres. Duterte, G.R. No. 227635, October 15, 2019

De Lima v. Pres. Rodrigo R. Duterte
G.R. No. 227635, October 15, 2019

Lessons Applicable: Writ of Habeas Data, Presidential Immunity from Suit
Laws Applicable:

FACTS:
  • May 9, 2016: Davao City Mayor Rodrigo Roa Duterte was elected as the 16th President of the Philippines with a key agenda of his Administration was the relentless national crackdown on illegal drugs.
  • August 2, 2016: Sen. De Lima delivered a privilege speech on the floor of the Senate calling a stop to the alleged extrajudicial killings committed in the course of the crackdown.
  • Petition for the issuance of a writ of habeas data seeking to enjoin President Rodrigo Roa Dutete from committing acts allegedly violative of her right to life, liberty and security through his public statements: 
    • August 11, 2016 public statement of President Duterte: “I know I’m the favorite whipping boy of the NGOs and the human rights stalwarts.  But, I have a special ano kaya no.  She is a government official.  One day soon I will – bitiwan ko yan in public and I will have to destroy her in public.”  Incidentally, in the same event, President Duterte insinuated that with the help of another country, he was keeping surveillance of her.  “Akala nila na hindi rin ako nakikinig sa kanila.  So while all the time they were also listening to what I’ve done, I’ve also been busy, and with the help of another country, listening to them.
    • The statement uttered in a briefing at the NAIA Terminal 3, Pasay City in August 17, 2016 wherein President Duterte named Sen. De Lima as the government office he referred to earlier at the same time accused her of living an immortal life by having a romantic affair with her driver, a married man, and of being involved in illegal drugs.  “There’s one crusading lady, whose even herself led a very immoral life, taking his driver as her lover… Paramour niya ang driver nya nagging hooked rin sa drugs because of the close association.  You know, when you are an immoral, dirty woman, the driver was married.  So you live with the driver, its concubinage.
    • The statements that described her an immoral woman; that publicized her intimate and personal life, starting from her new boyfriend to her sexual escapades; that told of her being involved in illegal drugs as well as in activities that included her construction of a house for her driver/lover with financing from drug-money
    • Statements that threatened her (“De Lima, you are finished”) and demeaned her womanhood and humanity.  If I were De Lima, ladies and gentlemen, I’ll hang myself.  Your life has been, hindi lang life, the innermost of your core as a female is being serialized everyday.  Dapat kang mag-resign.  You resign.  And “De Lima better hang yourself… Hindi ka na naghiya sa sarili mo.  Any other woman would have slashed her throat.  You?  Baka akala mo artista ka.  Mga artistang x-rated paglabas sa, paktapos ng shooting, nakangiti…”
  • Sen. De Lima traces his animosity towards her when she 1st encountered President Durterte while he was still the City Mayor of Davao and she the Chairperson of the Commission on Human Rights investigating the existence of the so-called “Davao Death Squad.”

ISSUE: W/N Presidential’s immunity from suit can shield the President from being haled to court
HELD: Dismissed even without the President invoking the privilege of immunity from suit.
YES.
G.R. No. 227635, October 15, 2019
  • Immunity can be classified either by: a. extent i.e. absolute or qualified or b. duration i.e. permanent or temporary
  • Extent: 
    • Absolute immunity is granted to a government official who has proven that his actions fell within the scope of his duties, and that his actions are discretionary rather than ministerial – conduct or the action performed must not involve insignificant or routinely office work but rather the challenged action must involve personal judgment.  It attaches to the function instead of the office.
    • Qualified immunity was initially given to a government official who was able to prove that at the time of commission of the act complained of, he possessed a good faith that his actions were lawful – subjective element determined with the two-tier test:
  • If the statutory or constitutional right asserted by the plaintiff was clear at the time of the alleged wrongful action
  • Whether the official should reasonably have known the action was contrary to law
  • Duration:
    • Permanent or the immunity for speech or debate – immunity from liability in law suits that arise out of the performance of public duties of democratic deliberation
    • Temporary or congressional immunity from arrest – to legislators from litigating even private suits while “at Session” of Congress as public officers
  • Estrada v. Desierto (G.R. No. 146710-15, March 2, 2001): Being a former President, President Estrada no longer enjoyed immunity from suit
  • David v. Macapagal-Arroyo (G.R. No. 171396, May 3, 2006): Improper to implead President Arroyo in a consolidated petition disputing the factual bases for Presidential Proclamation No. 1017 and General Order No. 5 declaring a state of national emergency and called out the Armed Forces of the Philippines in her capacity as Commander-in-Chief to maintain law and order throughout the country and to suppress acts of lawless violence, insurrection or rebellion.  
  • Rubrico v. Macapagal-Arroyo (G.R. No. No. 183871, February 18, 2010):  Court upheld the exclusion of President  Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, maintaining that presidential immunity from suit despite not being expressly reserved in the 1987 Constitution and declared that the President could not be sued during her tenure in a petition for the issuance of the writ of amparo against military, police personnel and the Office of the Ombudsman and including President Arroyo.
  • Balao v. Macapagal-Arroyo (G.R. No. 186050, December 13, 2011): Court ruled that RTC had erred in holding that Presidential immunity could not be invoked in amparo proceedings
  • While the concept of immunity from suit originated elsewhere, the ratification of the 1981 constitutional amendments and the 1987 Constitution made our version of presidential immunity unique.  Section 15, Article VII of the 1973 Constitution, as amended, provided for immunity at two distinct points in time: 1. Immunity during the tenure of the President 2. Thereafter.  Framer’s intended during tenure.  
  • Presidential immunity does not hinge on the nature of the suit.  It is not intended to immunize the President from liability or accountability.
    • Rationale for the grant of immunity stated in Soliven v. Makasiar (G.R. No. 82585, 82827, 83979, November 14, 1988): To assure the exercise of Presidential duties and functions fee from any hindrance of distraction, considering that being the Chief Executive of the Government is a job that aside from requiring all of the office-holder’s time, also demands undivided attention.
    • Rationale expanded in David v. Macapagal-Arroyo: It will degrade the dignity of the high office of the President, the Head of State, if he can be dragged into court litigations while serving as such. Furthermore, it is important that he be freed from any form of harassment, hindrance or distraction to enable him to fully attend to the performance of his official duties and functions. Unlike the legislative and judicial branch, only one constitutes the executive branch and anything which impairs his usefulness in the discharge of the many great and important duties imposed upon him by the Constitution necessarily impairs the operation of the Government. However, this does not mean that the President is not accountable to anyone. Like any other official, he remains accountable to the people but he may be removed from office only in the mode provided by law and that is by impeachment.
    • Passage in Soliven was made only to point out that it was the President by virtue of the office and may be invoked only by the holder of the office; not by any other person in the President’s behalf and that it was the President who had gone to court as the complainant
    • If the Court were to first require the President to respond to each and every complaint brought against him, and then avail himself of presidential immunity on a case to case basis, then the rationale for the privilege – protecting the President from harassment, hindrance or distraction in the discharge of his duties – would very well be defeated.
  • Constitution provides remedies for violations committed by the Chief Executive except an ordinary suit before the courts.  The Chief Executive must 1st be allowed to end his tenure (not his term) either through resignation or removal by impeachment. 

Labels

04/19 (1) 1.2 (1) 11/20 (1) 121479 (1) 128604 (1) 1906 (1) 1909 (2) 1910 (13) 1911 (2) 1912 (1) 1914 (10) 1915 (6) 1917 (1) 1918 (9) 1920 (4) 1921 (1) 1922 (8) 1923 (2) 1925 (4) 1926 (4) 1927 (3) 1929 (1) 1930 (4) 1931 (4) 1932 (2) 1933 (4) 1935 (4) 1935 constitution (1) 1936 (2) 1937 (4) 1938 (1) 1940 (2) 1942 (5) 1943 (2) 1946 (2) 1948 (2) 1949 (4) 1950 (2) 1951 (9) 1952 (3) 1953 (3) 1954 (8) 1955 (6) 1956 (2) 1957 (4) 1958 (3) 1960 (2) 1961 (6) 1961 Juris Doctor (2) 1962 (6) 1963 (7) 1964 (6) 1965 (4) 1966 (12) 1967 (13) 1968 (10) 1969 (2) 1970 (2) 1971 (2) 1972 (2) 1973 (5) 1974 (2) 1975 (10) 1976 (2) 1977 (6) 1978 (8) 1979 (6) 1980 (4) 1981 (8) 1982 (10) 1983 (8) 1984 (7) 1985 (3) 1986 (8) 1987 (7) 1987 Constitution (4) 1988 (10) 1989 (18) 1990 (15) 1991 (12) 1992 (26) 1992.Nature of Certificate of Stock (2) 1993 (23) 1994 (20) 1995 (15) 1996 (11) 1997 (26) 1997 rules of civil procedure (1) 1998 (23) 1999 (42) 2/10 (1) 2000 (25) 2001 (22) 2002 (22) 2003 (28) 2004 (7) 2005 (16) 2006 (45) 2007 (27) 2008 (35) 2009 (13) 2010 (16) 2011 (10) 2012 (4) 2012 bar exam results (1) 2013 (1) 2014 (3) 2014 bar exam passers (1) 2014 bar exam results (1) 2015 (2) 2016 bar passers (1) 2016 bar results (1) 2016 bar top notchers (1) 2016 successful bar candidates (1) 2019 (11) 2019. taxation (1) 2020 (7) 212 U.S. 449 (2) 246 Corporation v. Daway (2) 283 U.S. 102 (2) 295 U.S. 247 (2) 309 U.S. 78 (2) 4-year grace period (2) 997 (1) A.M. No. 190 (2) A.M. No. MTJ-92-716 (2) A.M. No. RTJ-02-1673 (2) A.M. No. RTJ-07-2062 (1) A.M. RTJ-07-2062 (1) abandoned (1) Aboitiz Shipping Corp v Insurance Co of North America (1) ABSCBN v. CA (1) acceptance (2) acceptance by obligee (1) Accommodation (2) Accommodation Party (17) accomodation party (5) Accrual method (3) Acknowledgement receipt (1) acop v piraso (1) Actionable Document (10) Actual or Compensatory Damage (1) adb employees (1) administrative expenses (2) Aggravating circumstance (2) Agner v. BPI (1) Agro Conglomerates Inc. v. CA (2) Aisporna v CA (1) ajero v ca (1) Algarra v Sandejas (1) all events test (2) Allied Banking Corp. v. CA (2) Allied Banking Corp. v. Lim Sio Wan (2) allowable administrative expenses (2) Alteration (8) alvarado v galviola (1) Ambiguous Provisions Interpreted Against Insurer (2) American Home Assurance Co v Chua (1) Ancillary Contracts (3) Ang v. Associated Bank (2) ANPC v. BIR (1) applicability of provisions (6) application and problems (1) Apply accrual method equally for both deduction and income (1) Apr. 19 2007 (1) April 10 (1) April 11 (1) April 12 (4) April 13 (2) April 16 (2) April 18 (4) April 19 (3) April 20 (4) April 22 (2) April 23 (1) April 25 (4) April 26 (2) April 27 (2) April 28 (1) April 29 (3) April 3 (4) April 30 (2) April 8 (2) April 9 (4) Areola v CA (1) art 1106 (1) art 1106 civil code (1) art 1107 (1) art 1173 (1) art 1174 servando v philippine steam navigation (1) art 1245 (1) art 1255 (1) art 1263 (1) art 14 rpc (2) art 1504 (1) art 1523 (1) art 1736 (1) art 19 (2) art 1902 (1) art 2 rpc (3) Art 20 (1) art 2087 (1) art 21 (4) Art 2176 (3) art 2180 (1) art 2208 (1) art 2217 (1) art 2219 (3) art 2229 (1) art 225 (1) art 23 (2) art 26 (2) Art 3 RPC (2) art 32 (1) art 4 rpc (6) art 6 rpc (2) art 64 (1) art 65 (1) art. 1 (2) ART. 1089 (2) art. 15 (2) Art. 17 (1) Art. 1733 (2) Art. 1734 (2) Art. 1736 (2) Art. 175 (1) Art. 1755 (4) Art. 1756 (2) Art. 1759 (2) Art. 1763 (2) Art. 1910 (1) art. 2 (1) art. 2 civil code (1) art. 2 rpc (2) Art. 2011 Civil Code (1) ART. 2208 (1) Art. 26 (1) art. 3 (1) art. 41 (1) art. 6 rpc (6) Art. XII (4) art.3 rpc (1) Article 1 RPC (2) Article 1173 (1) Article 1191 (1) Article 1249 of the New Civil Code (1) Article 1764 (1) Article 2206 (1) Article 2208 (1) Article 2219 (1) Article 2220 (1) Article 2232 of the Civil Code (1) Article VII (1) Article X (1) Assignee (1) Assoc. Bank and Conrado Cruz v. CA (2) Associated Bank v. CA (1) Associated Bank v. CA (1) Associated Bank v. Pronstroller (2) Association of International Shipping Lines v. Sec. of Finance (1) assumed within the purview of general rule (1) Astro Electronics Corp. v. Phil. Export (2) ateneo (2) ateneo law (6) ateneo law school (1) Atrium Management Corp. v. CA (2) Attempted (2) attempted murder (2) Attempted or Frustrated Stage (2) attempted rape (3) Attempter (2) attoryneys fees (1) Atty. Ferrer v Sps. Diaz (1) Aug. 15 (1) August 06 (2) August 1 (2) August 10 (2) August 11 (4) August 12 (3) August 15 (3) August 17 (4) August 18 (2) August 20 (3) August 21 (2) August 22 (2) August 23 (5) August 25 (1) August 28 (4) August 29 (4) August 3 (4) August 30 (1) August 31 (9) August 5 (1) August 6 (6) August 9 (2) Authoried Driver Clause (1) Authority to Receive Payment (1) Authority to Receive Payment/Effect of Payment (1) authorized driver (1) avera v garcia (1) azaola v singson (1) aznar v garcia (1) azuela v ca (1) Bachrach Motor Co v. Lacson Ledesma (2) Bachrach v British American Assurance Co (1) bagtas v paguio (1) bail (5) Balanay Jr. v. Martinez (2) baleros v. people (2) Baliwag Transit Corp. v. CA (1) baliwag v. ca (1) baltazar v laxa (1) Bank of America v CA (1) bank products (1) bar exam (5) bar exam passers (1) bar exam result (2) bar exam results (1) bar exam review (1) bar exam tips (1) bar exams (1) Bataan Cigar v. CA (2) Bautista v. Auto Plus Traders (2) Bayla v. Silang Traffic Co. (2) bellis v bellis (1) Bellis vs Bellis (1) benguet electric cooperative v ca (1) Bernabe Castillo et al v Hon Court of Appeals (1) bicolandia drug corp v. cir (2) bigamy (3) Bill of Lading (2) bill of rights (4) binding effect of payment (2) bir (4) bir function (2) bir power (2) birth certificate (1) Blood Relationship (3) Bonifacio Bros v Mora (1) bonnevie v. ca (1) book (1) book excerpts (1) book launch (1) book review (1) bosal holding bv v stratessecretaris van financier (1) bp 22 (2) bpi investment corp v ca (2) BPI v. CA (3) BPI v. Fidelity (2) British Airways v. CA (2) british american tobacco v. camacho (2) Bull v. United States (2) burden of proof in accrual method (2) business (1) Business Economics (3) Business Economics notes (4) buy bust operation (1) Calculation of Risk (1) Calimutan v. People (1) Caltex v. CA (1) Caltex (Phils.) Inc. v. CA and Security Bank and Trust Co (1) Caltex v Sulpicio Lines (1) Calvo v UCPB Gen Insurance Co (1) Caneda Jr. v. CA (2) caneda v ca (1) Cangco v MRR (1) canlas v ca (1) capital asset (2) Capital Gains Tax on Expropriation (1) Capital Insurance Surety Co Inc v Plastic Era (1) capital loss (2) Carlos Arcona y Moban v CA (1) carriage (1) CARRIAGE OF GOODS BY SEA ACT (2) Carrier or Depositary (1) Carry-over (2) case (6) Case C-168/ (1) Case Digest (381) case digests (10) case digst (1) Case Method Notes (1) case overview (1) cases (34) Cases where Moral Damage is allowed (1) Cases where Moral damages are allowed (1) Cebu International Finance Corp. v. CA (2) cenomar (1) centennial prayer (1) Centralized Management Doctrine (2) Cerrano v Tan (1) certainty (2) Certificate of stock (2) Cha v CA (1) characteristics of human rights (4) characterization (2) charter party (4) Checks (14) Chevron Holdings (1) chico-nazario (1) china banking corp v. ca (2) Ching v. Sec. of Justice (3) CIA Maritima v. Insurance Co (2) cir v Lincoln Philippine Life Insurance (1) cir v. acosta (2) CIR v. Aichi Forging Company (2010) (2) cir v. estate of benigno toda jr (2) CIR v. Isabela Cultural Corp. (2) CIR v. Mirant (2011) (2) CIR v. PNB (1) CIR v. San Miguel Corporation (1) CIR V. Team Energy Corporation (1) CIR v. Univation Motor Philippines (1) CIR v. V.Y. Domingo (1) citizen suit (2) City Treasurer of Manila v. Philippine Beverage Partners (1) Civil Code (1) civil law review (5) civil procedure (3) civil procedure codals (1) Civil Procedure Notes Outline (1) claim for refund (3) Clear Provision Given Ordinary Meaning (1) Co v. Admiral United Savings Bank (2) Codals (2) Code of Professional Responsibility (1) codoy v calugay (1) cogsa (1) Cometa v CA (1) commerce (1) commercial law (2) commercial law review (1) commercial law reviewer (1) commodatum (1) common grammatical error (2) complete list (1) Complex Electric v NLRC (1) concept of moral damages (1) conflict of law case digest (3) conflict of laws (12) conflicts of law Notes Outline (1) conflicts of laws (2) conflicts of laws review (2) congress (1) connecting factor (2) consideration (25) Consolidated Bank v. CA (1) Consolidated Plywood v. IFC (2) conspiracy (4) Constantino v Asia Life Insurance Co (1) Constitution (2) constitutional law (7) Constitutional Law Case Digest (1) consummated crime (2) contract of adhesion (2) Contracting Parties (3) Coquia v Fieldmens Insurance Co Inc (1) cornelio amaro v Ambrocio Sumanguit (1) coronel v ca (1) corporate criminal liability (4) Corporate Law (81) Corporate Law Case Digest (43) Corporate Law Notes (6) Corporate Law Notes Outline (1) corporate negligence (1) Corporate Officers or employees (3) Corporation by estoppel doctrine (2) court (1) court of tax appeal (1) courts (1) cover notes (1) coverage (1) credit in life and health insurance (1) credit transactions (12) crim law 1 (65) crim pro (1) criminal acts not immune (2) criminal law (10) criminal liability (1) criminal procedure (17) criminal procedure case digest (3) Crismina Garments v CA (1) cruz v villasor (1) CTA (1) CTA Case No. 9084 (1) CTA Case No. 9147 (1) CTA Case No. 9590 (1) CTA Case No. 9722 (1) CTA EB No. 1895/1896 (1) cta findings (2) cta jurisdiction (1) CTA's jurisdiction is appellate (1) cuevas v achacoso (1) Damages (4) Dangwa Transportation Co. Inc. v. CA (2) Datu Tagoranao Benito v. SEC (2) davao gulf lumber corporation v. cir (2) DBP v CA (1) de castro (1) de la cruz v capital ins (1) De la Pena v CA (1) De Lima v. Pres. Duterte (1) De los Santos v. Republic (2) Dealings Between Corporation and Stockholders (2) Dealings with Corp. and Stockholders (2) death certificate (1) December 10 (3) December 12 (1) December 14 (4) December 16 (5) December 17 (5) December 18 (2) December 2 (2) December 20 (5) December 21 (6) December 23 (2) December 27 (1) December 28 (2) December 29 (5) December 3 (2) December 4 (1) December 7 (1) December 8 (5) December 9 (2) deductibility of bad debts (2) Dee v. SEC (2) Defective attempt to form (2) defense of stranger (1) defenses (2) Definition and Concept of Damages (2) Definition and Coverage of Casualty Insurance (2) Definition and Coverage of Life Insurance (1) Definition of a Close Corporation (2) definition of felony (2) Degrees of Negligence (2) Del Rosario v CA (1) Del Rosario v Equitable Ins. and Casualty Co (1) Del Val v Del Val (1) delfin lim v Francisco Ponce De Leon (1) Delgado Brothers (2) demand (1) Demand and Supply Analysis (2) demurrage (1) deposits (1) Dereliction of Duty (1) detention fees (1) Determinants (1) digest (2) direct injury test (4) Director of Lands v. CA (2) Director of Lands v. IAC (2) Discharge of instrument (2) disorder in the court (1) Disqualification (1) divorce (2) Doctor (1) Doctrine of Immutability (1) Doctrine of exhaustion (1) doctrine of exhaustion of administrative remedies (1) doctrine of hierarchy of courts (1) Doctrine of Operative Fact (1) Doctrine of Piercing (1) Doctrine of Processual Presumption (1) documents processing (1) Doing an Insurance Business (1) donation (4) dorotheo v ca (1) Double insurance (1) double taxation (1) due process (6) Duty of CIR (1) Dy v. People (2) Edward J. Nell Co. v. Pacific Farms Inc (2) Effect of Change of Interest (1) Effect of Change of Interest in Thing Insured (2) Effect of Lack of Insurable Interest (3) effect of non payment (2) Effect of Payment (1) effect of transfer (1) El Oriente Fabrica de Tabacos Inc v Posadas (1) Election of Directors; Vacancy in the Board (2) Elements (2) elements of quasi delict (3) emergency rule (1) en banc (74) Enervida v dela Torre (1) Engada v CA (1) english 101 (2) enriquez v abadia (1) Enriquez v Sun Life Assurance (1) environmental law (2) equilibrium (1) Equitable PCI Bank v. Ong (2) erap v sandiganbayan (2) Ernesto Medina v Hon Floreliana Castro-Bartolome (1) estafa (2) estate (1) estate tax (2) estoppel (5) Estoppel and credit extension (2) estoppel applies in CTA tax disputes (1) Eternal Gardens Memorial Park Corp v Philippine American Life Insurance (1) events (1) Everett Streamship Corp. v. CA (2) Evident Premeditation (2) EX criminally liable civilly liable (2) Exception to Ambiguous Provisions Interpreted Against Insurer (1) exception to perfection (1) Exceptions to Contracting Parties (4) executive department (2) exhaust administrative claim (1) Exhaust Administrative Claim Before Judicial Claim (1) existing interest (5) expenses (2) expert and professionals (1) Expert Travel v CA (1) experts and professionals (1) Exploitation of Natural Resources (2) extradition (9) extradition process (2) extradition treaty (2) f. Government of the USA v. Hon. Purganan (1) Factors in determining amount (7) FACTS (1) factual situation (2) family code (3) Far East Bank Trust v. Gold Palace Jewelry (2) far eastern university (1) Fausto Barredo v. Severino Garcia (2) fc (1) FDCP v. Colon Heritage Realty Corporation G.R. No. 203754/G.R. No. 204418 (1) Feati University v. Bautista (1) Feb. 27 2006 (1) February 12 (2) february 15 (4) February 16 (4) February 18 (4) February 19 (2) February 2 (3) February 21 (2) February 22 (5) February 23 (4) February 24 (2) February 25 (3) February 26 (4) February 27 (7) February 28 (8) February 29 (4) February 4 (2) February 5 (2) February 6 (7) February 7 (2) February 8 (4) February 9 (11) Federico Ylarde v Edgardo Aquino (1) felonies (1) felony (1) fernando v ca (1) feu (1) FGU Insurance Corporation v CA (1) Fictitious Persons (2) filed out of time (1) filing of the complete supporting documents (1) Filipinas Compania de Seguros v Christern Henefeld (1) Filipinas Port v. Go (2) Filipinas Synthentic Fiber v. CA (1999) (2) Filipino Merchants Insurance Co v CA (1) first division (54) first part (1) fitness by design v. cir (2) Fleischer v. Botica Nolasco Co (2) foreign policy prerogative (2) foreigner (2) forgery (21) Fortune Insurance and Surety Co v CA (1) forum non conveniens (1) fqs (1) francisco pangilinan (1) Francisco v GSIS (1) Francisco v. CA (2) fraud (1) Frustrated (2) frustrated or consummated theft (2) Fuentes v CA (1) Fule v CA (1) Fully Paid Shares (1) G. R. No. 160188 (1) G. R. No. 116320 (1) G. R. No. 160188 (1) G. R. No. 164317 (1) G. R. No. 164317 February 6 (2) G.R. 79050-51 (1) G.R. No 48196 (2) G.R. No. 146635 (2) G.R. No. 166862 (1) G.R. No. 168100 November 20 (1) G.R. No. 101083 (2) G.R. No. 101163 (2) G.R. No. 101503 (2) G.R. No. 102253 (2) G.r. No. 102342 (2) G.R. No. 102383 (2) G.R. No. 103119 (2) G.R. No. 103379 (2) G.R. No. 103554 (1) G.R. No. 103577 (1) G.R. No. 104376 (1) G.R. No. 104376 February 23 (1) G.R. No. 105562 (2) G.R. No. 105774 (2) G.R. No. 105836 (2) G.R. No. 106720 (1) G.R. No. 107062 (2) G.R. No. 107382 (1) G.R. No. 107382/G.R. No. 107612 (1) G.R. No. 107508 (2) G.R. No. 107518 (2) G.R. No. 107612 (1) G.R. No. 108017 (2) G.R. No. 108581 (1) G.R. No. 109491 (1) G.R. No. 111584 (2) G.R. No. 111692 (2) G.R. No. 112024 (2) G.R. No. 112160 (3) G.R. No. 112212 (2) G.R. No. 112287 (1) G.R. No. 112287 December 12 (1) G.R. No. 112392 (2) G.R. No. 112573 (2) G.R. No. 113213 (1) G.R. No. 113578 (2) G.R. No. 113725 (1) G.R. No. 113899 (1) G.R. No. 114061 (3) G.R. No. 114118 (2) G.R. No. 115024 (1) G.R. No. 115117 (2) G.R. No. 115156 (2) G.R. No. 115278 (2) G.R. No. 116320 (1) G.R. No. 116736 (2) G.R. No. 117359 (2) G.R. No. 117660 (2) G.R. No. 118325 (2) G.R. No. 118342 (1) G.R. No. 118357 (2) G.R. No. 118794 (2) G.R. No. 119176 (2) G.R. No. 120135 (2) G.R. No. 120262 (2) G.R. No. 120554 (2) G.R. No. 120706 (2) G.R. No. 120988 (2) G.R. No. 121315 (2) G.R. No. 121413 (2) G.R. No. 121479 (1) G.R. No. 121828 (2) G.R. No. 121998 (2) G.R. No. 122099 (2) G.R. No. 122191 (2) G.R. No. 122494 (2) G.R. No. 122880 (1) G.R. No. 123031 (2) G.R. No. 123404 (2) G.R. No. 123486 (1) G.R. No. 124050 (2) G.R. No. 124062 (2) G.R. No. 124099 (1) G.R. No. 124354 (2) G.R. No. 124371 (2) G.R. No. 124520 (2) G.R. No. 125508 (2) G.R. No. 125678 (2) G.R. No. 125835 (1) G.R. No. 125851 (2) G.R. No. 125865 (2) G.R. No. 126204 (2) G.R. No. 126297 (3) G.R. No. 126405 (1) G.R. No. 126518 (2) G.R. No. 126670 December 2 (2) G.R. No. 127326 (2) G.R. No. 127823 (2) G.R. No. 128286 (2) G.R. No. 128604 (1) G.R. No. 128690 (2) G.R. No. 128721 (2) G.R. No. 129433 (2) G.R. No. 129459 (2) G.R. No. 129584 (2) G.R. No. 129792 (2) G.R. No. 129910 (2) G.R. No. 130030 (2) G.R. No. 130421 (2) G.R. No. 131166 (1) G.R. No. 131621 (1) G.R. No. 132403 (2) G.R. No. 132419 (2) G.R. No. 133179 (2) G.R. No. 133632 (2) G.R. No. 134784 (2) G.R. No. 136448 (1) G.R. No. 136448 November 3 (1) G.R. No. 136729 (2) G.R. No. 137775 (1) G.R. No. 138033 (2) G.R. No. 138074 (2) G.R. No. 138322 (1) G.R. No. 138510 (2) G.R. No. 138569 (2) G.R. No. 138739 (2) G.R. No. 139325 (2) G.R. No. 139465 (1) G.R. NO. 139802 (2) G.R. No. 140006-10 (2) G.R. No. 140047 (2) G.R. No. 140698 (3) G.R. No. 140707 (2) G.R. No. 142616 (2) G.R. No. 143838 (2) G.R. No. 144476 (2) G.R. No. 145804 (3) G.R. No. 146511 (2) G.R. NO. 146779 (2) G.R. No. 147188 (2) G.R. No. 147746 (2) G.R. No. 147839 (2) G.R. No. 148083 (2) G.R. No. 148132 (1) G.R. No. 148211 (2) G.R. No. 148444 (1) G.R. No. 148496 (1) G.R. No. 148560 (2) G.R. No. 148571 (1) G.R. No. 149038 (2) G.R. No. 151079 (1) G.R. No. 151445 April 11 (1) G.R. No. 151445 April 11 (1) G.R. No. 151969 (2) G.R. No. 152133 (2) G.R. No. 153675 (1) G.R. No. 153898 October 18 (2) G.R. No. 154068 (2) G.R. No. 154127 (2) G.R. No. 154469 (2) G.R. No. 154514 (1) G.R. No. 154740 (2) G.R. No. 15566 (1) G.R. No. 155791 (2) G.R. No. 156167 (2) G.R. No. 156207 (2) G.R. No. 156294 (2) G.R. No. 157216 (2) G.R. No. 157309 (2) G.R. No. 157451 (1) G.R. No. 157547 (2) G.R. No. 157833 (1) G.R. No. 157906 (3) G.R. No. 157977 (1) G.R. No. 158262 (2) G.R. No. 158312 (2) G.R. No. 159747 (1) G.R. No. 161886 (1) G.R. No. 162230 (2) G.R. No. 163583 (1) G.R. No. 163583 August 20 (1) G.R. No. 1641 (1) G.R. No. 165109 (2) G.R. No. 165300 (1) G.R. No. 165483 (2) G.R. No. 165546 (2) G.R. No. 165842 (2) G.R. No. 165993 (2) G.R. No. 166006 March 14 (2) G.R. No. 166006 March 14 (1) G.R. No. 166245 (2) G.R. No. 166326 (2) G.R. No. 166405 (2) G.R. No. 166479 (2) G.R. No. 167330 (2) g.r. no. 167571 (1) G.R. No. 168100 November 20 (1) G.R. No. 168115 (2) G.R. No. 168118 (2) G.R. No. 168274 (2) G.R. No. 168402 (2) G.R. No. 170257 (2) G.R. No. 170325 (2) G.R. No. 170984 (2) G.R. No. 171052 (2) G.R. No. 172231 (2) G.R. No. 172896 (2) G.R. No. 172966 (2) G.R. No. 173594 (1) G.R. No. 173915 (1) G.R. No. 174489 (1) G.R. No. 176165 (2) G.R. No. 176831 (1) G.R. No. 177982 (2) G.R. No. 178090 (2) G.R. No. 178523 (2) G.R. No. 17958 (2) G.R. No. 179859 (1) G.R. No. 180356 (2) G.R. No. 180740/G.R. No. 180910 (1) G.R. No. 181132 (2) G.R. No. 182963 (1) G.R. No. 183526 (1) G.R. No. 183905 (2) G.R. No. 184823 (2) G.R. No. 194515 (2) G.R. No. 197164 (1) G.R. No. 20341 (2) G.R. No. 205473 (1) G.R. No. 212050 (1) G.R. No. 212216 (1) G.R. No. 212699 (1) G.R. No. 221780 (1) G.R. No. 222239 (1) G.R. No. 227635 (1) G.R. No. 228539 (1) G.R. No. 230412 (1) G.R. No. 231581 (1) G.R. No. 23703 (2) G.R. No. 241697 (1) G.R. No. 34774 (2) G.R. No. 44119 (2) G.R. No. 48541 (2) G.R. No. 6659 (2) G.R. No. 71871 (1) G.R. No. 72110 (2) G.R. No. 72593 (2) G.R. No. 73886 (2) G.R. No. 74695 (1) G.R. No. 74761 (2) G.R. No. 74886 (2) G.R. No. 75605 (2) G.R. No. 76452 (2) G.R. No. 76788 (2) G.R. No. 80294-95 (1) G.R. No. 80447 (2) G.R. No. 81322 (2) G.R. No. 83122 (2) G.R. No. 84197 (1) G.R. No. 84197 July 28 (2) G.R. No. 85141 (3) G.R. No. 88724 (2) G.R. No. 88866 (2) G.R. No. 89802 (2) G.R. No. 89880 (2) G.R. No. 92087 (1) G.R. No. 92244 (2) G.R. No. 92288 (3) G.R. No. 93048 (2) G.R. No. 93073 (2) G.R. No. 93397 (2) G.R. No. 93695 (2) G.R. No. 94071 (2) G.R. No. 95322 (2) G.R. No. 95529 (2) G.R. No. 95546 (1) G.R. No. 95582 (3) G.R. No. 95641 (2) G.R. No. 95696 (2) G.R. No. 95696. March 3 (2) G.R. No. 97336 (2) G.R. No. 97626 (2) G.R. No. 97753 (2) G.R. No. 99301 (2) G.R. No. L-12189 (2) G.R. No. L-12190 (1) G.R. No. L-12191 (2) G.R. No. L-12219 (2) G.R. No. L-12736 (2) G.R. No. L-12858 (2) G.R. No. L-12907 (2) G.R. No. L-13005 (1) G.R. No. L-14003 (1) G.R. No. L-14074 (1) G.R. No. L-14300 (2) G.R. No. L-14441 (1) G.R. No. L-14441 December 17 (1) G.R. No. L-14986 (2) G.R. No. L-15126 (2) G.R. No. L-15184 (2) G.R. No. L-15894 (2) G.R. No. L-15895 (2) G.R. No. L-16138 (2) G.R. No. L-16215 (2) G.R. No. L-16567 (2) G.R. No. L-1669 (2) G.R. No. L-16749 (1) G.R. No. L-17312 (1) G.R. No. L-17474 (2) G.R. No. L-17845 (2) G.R. No. L-18216 (2) G.R. No. L-18287 (2) G.R. No. L-18657 (2) G.R. No. L-18924 (2) G.R. No. L-18965 (3) G.R. No. L-18979 (1) G.R. No. L-19189 (2) G.R. No. L-19550 (2) G.R. No. L-20081 (2) G.R. No. L-20357 (1) G.R. No. L-20434 (2) G.R. No. L-20850 (2) G.R. No. L-20853 (2) G.R. No. L-21278 (2) G.R. No. L-21291 (2) G.R. No. L-21380 (2) G.R. No. L-21462 (2) G.R. No. L-21500 (2) G.R. No. L-21574 (2) G.R. No. L-21642 (2) G.R. No. L-22042 (2) G.R. No. L-2227 (2) G.R. No. L-22375 (1) G.R. No. L-22554 (2) G.R. No. L-22595 (1) G.R. No. L-22796 (2) G.R. No. L-2294 (2) G.R. No. L-23145 (1) G.R. No. L-23145 November 29 (2) G.R. No. L-23241 (2) G.R. No. L-23276 (2) G.R. No. L-23678 (2) G.R. No. L-24803 (2) G.R. No. L-24978 (2) G.R. No. L-25317 (2) G.R. No. L-25845 (2) G.R. No. L-25920 (2) G.R. No. L-2662 (2) G.R. No. L-26743 (2) G.R. No. L-26767 (2) G.R. No. L-27155 (2) G.R. No. L-28093 (2) G.R. No. L-28120 (2) G.R. No. L-2855 (2) G.R. No. L-2861 (2) G.R. No. L-28673 (2) G.R. No. L-28946 (1) G.R. No. L-29276 (2) G.R. No. L-29432 (2) G.R. No. L-30389 (2) G.R. No. L-30896 (1) G.R. No. L-31195 (2) G.R. No. L-32213 (1) G.R. No. L-32611 (2) G.R. No. L-33171 (2) G.R. No. L-3362 (1) G.R. No. L-33722 (2) G.R. No. L-34539 (2) G.R. No. L-34539 July 14 (1) G.R. No. L-3497 (1) G.R. No. L-35095 (2) G.R. No. L-35262 (2) G.R. No. L-35283 (2) G.R. No. L-36481-2 (2) G.R. No. L-37750 (2) G.R. No. L-38037 (2) G.R. No. L-38338 (1) G.R. No. L-38613 (2) G.R. No. L-38684 (2) G.R. No. L-38816 (2) G.R. No. L-39050 (2) G.R. No. L-39247 (2) G.R. No. L-39419 (2) G.R. No. L-40207 (1) G.R. No. L-4067 (1) G.R. No. L-40796 (2) G.R. No. L-4170 (1) G.R. No. L-4197 (2) G.R. No. L-42462 (2) G.R. No. L-4254 (2) G.R. No. L-43191 (2) G.R. No. L-43596 (1) G.R. No. L-44059 (2) G.R. No. L-44837 (1) G.R. No. L-45637 (2) G.R. No. L-46061 (2) G.R. No. L-4611 (1) G.R. No. L-46558 (2) G.R. No. L-4722 (2) G.R. No. L-47722 (2) G.R. No. L-47739 (2) G.R. No. L-48006 (3) G.R. No. L-4818 (2) G.R. No. L-48195 (2) G.R. No. L-48250 (2) G.R. No. L-48321 (1) G.R. No. L-48757 (3) G.R. No. L-48796 (2) G.R. No. L-49101 (2) G.R. No. L-49188 (2) G.R. No. L-49390 (2) G.R. No. L-4963 (1) G.R. No. L-4977 (2) G.R. No. L-50373 (2) G.R. No. L-50959 (2) G.R. No. L-51806 (2) G.R. No. L-51832 (2) G.R. No. L-5270 (2) G.R. No. L-5272 (4) G.R. No. L-5377 (1) G.R. No. L-54216 (2) G.R. No. L-55079 (2) G.R. No. L-55397 (2) G.R. No. L-56169 June 26 (1) G.R. No. L-56487 (2) G.R. No. L-56655 (2) G.R. No. L-5715 (2) G.R. No. L-58509 (1) G.R. No. L-58867 (2) G.R. No. L-5887 (2) G.R. No. L-59825 (2) G.R. No. L-59919 (2) G.R. No. L-60502 (2) G.R. No. L-6055 (2) G.R. No. L-6114 (2) G.R. No. L-62943 (2) G.R. No. L-6442 (1) G.R. No. L-67626 (2) G.R. No. L-67835 (2) G.R. No. L-6801 (1) G.R. No. L-69044 (1) G.R. No. L-7188 (1) G.R. No. L-7664 (2) G.R. No. L-7667 (2) G.R. No. L-7760 (2) G.R. No. L-7991 (2) G.R. No. L-8110 (2) G.R. No. L-81827 (3) G.R. No. L-8385 (2) G.R. No. L-8451 (2) G.R. No. L-8527 (1) G.R. No. L-8844 (2) G.R. No. L-9356 (2) G.R. No. L-9374 (2) G.R. No. L-9401 (2) G.R. No. L-9671 (1) G.R. No.113558 (1) G.R. No.148496 (1) G.R. No.L-17312 (1) G.R. No.L-4611 (1) G.R. Nos. 105965-70 (1) G.R. Nos. 113255-56 (2) G.R. Nos. 118498 & 124377 (2) G.R. Nos. 128833 (1) G.R. Nos. L-21353 and L-21354 (2) G.R. Nos. L-25836-37 (2) G.R. Nos. L-28324-5 (2) G.R.No. 113899 (1) G.R.No. 115024 (2) G.R.No. 118367 (1) G.R.No. 131166 (1) G.R.No. 137775 (1) G.R.No. 154514 (1) G.R.No. 159747 (1) G.R.No. L-22375 (1) G.R.No. L-9671 (1) G.R.No.113558 (1) G.R.Nos. 128833 (1) gaap (2) Gaisano Cagayan v Insurance Company of North America (1) gallardo v morales (1) gan v yap (1) Ganzon v. CA (2) Garcia – Recio v Recio (1) Garcia – Recio vs Recio (1) garcia v gatchalian (1) Garcia v Hongkong Fire Marine Insurance Co (1) garcia v lacuesta (1) Garcia v. Llamas (2) Gashem Shookat Baksh v CA (1) Gatbonton v. NLRC and Mapua (2) Gatchalian v Delim (1) Gelano v. CA (2) Gempesaw v. CA (2) General Indorser (3) general power of appointment (2) General Principles on Insurance (4) General Provisions (2) generally accepted international law (2) Gercio v. Sun Life Assurance Co. of Canada (1) German Garcia v The Hon Mariano M Florido et al (1) gil v murciano (1) gilchrist v cuddy (1) golden notes (1) Gonzales v. RCBC (2) Good Father of a Family (3) GR 138322 (1) GR No. 139465 (1) GR No. L-26001 (2) Gr. No. 113213 (1) GR. NO. 148571 (1) GR. NO. 153675 (1) GR. NO. 157977 (1) grammar (2) grammar rules (2) grammatical error (2) grand union supermarket v jose espino (1) grandfather rule (2) Great Asian Sales Center Corp. v. CA (2) Great Eastern Life Ins. Co. v. Hongkong Shanghai Bank (2) Great Pacific Life Assurance Corp v CA (1) GSIS v. CA (1) guide (1) guingon v Del Monte (1) Gulf Resorts Inc v Philippine Charter Insurance Corp (1) Gullas v. PNB (2) he or she (1) Heirs of Borlado v Vda De Bulan (1) Heirs of Loreto C. Maramag v Maramag (1) heirs of pdro tayag v hon fernando alcantara (1) Hi Cement Corp. v. Insular Bank (1) Hi-Cement Corp. v. Insular Bank (1) him or her (1) Holder in Due Course (2) honasan case (1) Honasan v The Panel of Investigating Prosecutor (1) hong kong v. hon olalia jr (1) Hong Kong v. Hon. Olalia Jr. (1) human rights (11) human rights law (13) human rights law case digest (7) icasiano v icasiano (1) Ilano v. CA (2) illegal provision in a will (1) illegitimate children (1) imelda marcos (1) immediate cause of which was the peril insured against (1) importance of accounting (1) in contemplation of death (2) In Re Mario v Chanliongco (1) in re will of riosa (1) Inc (4) Inc v Home Insurance (2) Inc v. CA (2) Inc v. Register of Deeds of Manila (2) Inc. (1) Inc. G.R. No. 233556 (1) Inc. v. CA (2) Inc. v. CIR (3) incapable of pecuniary estimation (1) income tax (2) Incomplete instruments (2) indeterminate sentence law (4) insanity (1) installment sales law (1) Insular Drugs v. PNB (2) insular life assurance co v ebrado (1) insurance (134) insurance act (1) insurance agent (1) Insurance Broker (1) insurance case digest (72) insurance code (5) insurance law reviewer (2) insurance notes (3) insurance notes outline (3) Insurance reviewer (1) Insured Outlives Policy (1) Integrated Packing v CA (1) intent (2) interest (1) interest of 20% (1) Interference with Contractual Relations (2) International Corp. Bank v. CA (2) international law (1) international law vs municipal law (1) International taxation (2) interpretation of treaties (1) intod v. ca (2) intoxication (1) Introduction to Negotiable Instruments (6) Invalid Designation (4) inventory (2) invoice requirements (2) IPL (2) IPL case digest (2) Irrevocable Designation (2) Isaac v AL Ammen Trans Co (1) j marketing v Sia (1) jaboneta v gustilo (1) Jai-Alai Corp. of the Phil. v. BPI (2) Jan 18 (1) Jan. 18 (1) January 11 (2) January 15 (5) January 16 (1) January 18 (2) January 19 (5) January 21 (4) January 22 (5) January 23 (2) January 25 (2) January 28 (9) January 29 (9) January 30 (10) January 31 (13) January 5 (2) jarco marketing v ca (1) JG Summit Holdings (1) Joaquinita P Capili v Sps Dominador and Rosalita Cardana (1) Jones Lang Lasalle (1) judge fernando vil pamintuan (1) judicial claim (3) Judicial Construction Cannot Alter Terms (1) judicial declaration of presumptive death (1) July 11 (2) July 13 (1) July 14 (7) July 16 (1) July 17 (2) July 18 (2) July 19 (8) July 20 (2) July 21 (4) July 23 (4) July 24 (2) July 26 (2) July 27 (2) July 28 (3) July 29 (3) july 3 (2) July 30 (9) July 31 (10) July 5 (2) July 6 (2) July 8 (3) June 11 (2) June 12 (2) June 15 (2) June 16 (2) June 19 (4) June 2 (2) june 20 (3) June 21 (2) June 22 (4) June 25 (2) June 26 (3) June 27 (4) June 28 (2) June 29 (3) June 30 (5) June 5 (4) June 6 (2) June 8 (5) Juris Doctor (660) jurisdiction (7) jurisprudence (425) Jurisprudence: G.R. No. 153468 (2) Jurisprudence: G.R. No. 173594 (1) kalaw v relova (1) kapunan (1) Kierulf v CA (1) Kinds (1) kinds of damage (1) Korean Airlines Co. LTd v. CA (2) kuroda v jalandoni (2) labor (4) labor law (4) labor relations (2) Lambert v. Fox (2) Lampano v. Jose (1) Land Titles and Deeds (14) Land Titles and Deeds Case Digest (7) Land Titles and Deeds Notes (5) Land Titles and Deeds Notes Outline (1) lanters products inc v ca (1) last clear chance (6) law (4) law reviewer (1) law reviewer political law (2) laws (2) lawyer (2) lawyer laughs (1) lawyers code (1) lawyers code of professional responsibility (1) lawyers oath (1) lawyers pledge (1) Lazatin v Twano (1) Lee v. CA (2) legal effect (3) legal ethics (1) legal jokes (2) legal period (2) legal updates (1) legitimation (2) Lennie De Sagun et al. v. CIR (1) lethal ethics (1) Lex Posterioni Derogati Priori (2) Liabilities (1) Liabilities did not sign (1) Liabilities of Parties (2) Liabilities of person who did not sign (1) liabilities of the parties (17) Liability for Torts (4) liability of an agent (2) liability of insurer for suicide and accidental death (1) Liang v. People (2) lifeblood theory (3) Lim v. Executive Secretary (2) litonjua v montilla (1) llorente v ca (1) Llorente v. Star City (1) Llorente vs CA (1) local business tax (1) locus standi (2) Lopez v Del Rosario and Quiogue (1) Lopez v Pan American (1) loss (1) loss caused by negligence of the insurance (1) LRTA v. Navidad (2) Macquarie Offshore Services v. CIR (1) Magellan Mfg Marketing Corp v CA (1) Makati Sports Club Inc v. Cecile Cheng (2) mala in se (2) Malayan Insurance v CA (1) Malayan Insurance Co v Arnaldo (1) malice (3) malum prohibitum (2) mamba v. lara (2) Manila Bank v. CIR (2006) (2) Manila Lighter Transportation Inc. v. CA (2) Manila Metal Container Corp. v. PNB (1) Manuel v. People (2) Marcelo Macalinao v Eddie Medecielo Ong (1) March 1 (3) March 11 (1) March 12 (3) March 13 (3) March 14 (5) March 15 (4) March 16 (3) March 18 (2) March 19 (8) March 2 (2) March 20 (3) March 22 (2) March 24 (2) March 25 (1) March 26 (4) March 27 (7) March 28 (7) March 3 (4) March 30 (9) March 31 (7) March 7 (2) March 9 (5) marcos (1) Marcos v. Judge Fernando Vil. Pamintuan (1) Maria Benita A. Dulay v The Court of Appeals (1) marinduque v workmens (1) marriage (2) marriage certificate (1) martial law (1) master of business and administration (1) Maulini v. Serrano (2) May 1 (2) May 16 (2) May 18 (5) May 19 (4) may 20 (4) May 23 (2) May 25 (2) May 26 (2) May 28 (1) May 29 (3) may 30 (3) May 31 (6) May 6 (2) May 8 (4) May 9 (2) MBA (5) MBA Notes (4) mcit (2) me or I (1) measure of indemnity (1) measure of insurable interest (1) mejoff v. director of prisons (4) Memorize (1) memory aid (4) mercantile law (8) mercantile law review (3) Merida Waterworks District v. Bacarro (2) Metrobank v. CA (2) Metrobank v. FNCB (2) Metropolitan Bank and Trust Co. v. Cablizo (2) miciano v brimo (1) Mijares v CA (1) Mijares v. Ranada (2005) (1) Miranda Ribaya v Carbonell (1) Misamis Lumber Corp. v. Capital Ins and Surety Co (1) mistake of fact (4) mistake of fact is not a defense (2) mitigating circumstances (2) Mitigation of Liability (1) Montinola v. PNB (2) Moral Damage for Labor Cases (1) moral damages (1) Moral Damages on Taking of Life (2) Moran v. CA and Citytrust Bank (2) morgan v commissioner (2) mortgage (2) mortgagor (4) mortis causa (2) motion jokes (1) motive (2) Motor Vehicle Liability Insurance (2) Mr. and Mrs. Amador C Ong v Metropolitan Water District (1) Murder (2) mutual insurance companies (1) MWSS v. CA (2) Nario v Philippine American Life Insurance Co of Canada (1) National Power v Philipp Brothers (1) national steel corp v ca (1) Natividad V. Andamo v IAC (1) naturalization (1) Nature of Certificate of Stock (4) Nava v. Peers Marketing Corp (2) Negotiable Instruments (4) Negotiable Instruments Case Digest (77) Negotiable Instruments Codals (2) Negotiable Instruments Law (143) Negotiable Instruments Memorize (1) Negotiable Instruments Notes (8) Negotiable Instruments Notes Outline (1) negotiation (1) nepomuceno v ca (1) New Life Enterprises v Court of Appeals (1) No conflicts rule on essential validity of contracts (1) no designation (1) No frustrated rape (2) nocon (1) non-bank financial intermediary (1) Northwest Orient Airlines Inc v CA (1) notes (2) notice and hearing (1) Notice of Dishonor (4) November 1 (1) November 11 (1) November 14 (6) November 16 (2) November 19 (4) November 2 (3) November 20 (4) November 23 (5) November 25 (3) November 26 (5) November 27 (2) November 28 (5) November 29 (16) November 3 (5) November 30 (2) November 5 (2) November 6 (4) November 7 (1) November 8 (2) nso (1) nso documents (1) nterpretation of treaties (1) October 1 (2) October 10 (3) October 12 (6) October 13 (2) October 14 (2) October 15 (3) October 17 (2) October 18 (2) October 19 (5) October 2 (2) October 21 (4) October 23 (4) October 24 (2) October 25 (6) October 28 (2) October 30 (6) October 31 (1) October 6 (2) october 7 (2) October 8 (6) offset if intimately related (1) Oh Cho v. Director of Lands (1) Ong Lim Sing v. FEB Leasing Finance Corp. (1) Ong Yong v. Tiu (2) oposo v factoran (1) opposo v factoran (1) opulencia v ca (1) ortega v valmonte (1) other (3) others (1) Outline (7) Overbreadth doctrine (2) P.D. 1529 (1) Pacheco v. CA (2) Pacific Timber v CA (1) Padgett v. Babcock (2) PAL v CA (2) Palileo v Cosio (1) Palting v. San Jose Petroleum (2) panaguiton jr v doj (1) Panasonic v. CIR (2010) (1) Paris-Manila Perfume Co v Phoenix Assurance (1) part 1 (2) part 2 (2) part 3 (2) part 4 (1) part four (1) Part One (2) part three (3) part two (1) passers (2) payment for honor (2) pb com v. cir (2) pd 1069 (1) PDIC (1) pecuniary interest (1) pedro elcano v regina hill (1) penalties of 25% surcharge (1) People v Bagayong (1) people v. ah chong (2) people v. basao (2) People v. Campuhan (2) People v. Daleba (2) People v. Dela Cruz (1) People v. Domasian (2) People v. Fernando (2) people v. go shiu ling (2) people v. gonzales (1) People v. Lol-lo & Saraw (2) People v. Mallari (1) people v. marco (2) People v. Oanis (2) People v. Opero (2) people v. orita (2) People v. Ortega (2) People v. Pagador (2) People v. Palaganas (2) People v. Piliin (2) People v. Pilola (2) People v. Quasha (2) people v. sia (1) People v. Tan Boon Kong (2) people v. wong cheng (2) perez v ca (2) perfection (2) Perla Compania De Seguros v Sps Gaudencio (1) Personal Injury and Death (2) Personal Notes (27) personally liable (1) persons (20) persons case digest (3) persons cases (1) persons secondarily liable (1) petition for review on certiorari under rule 45 (1) Phil American Life Insurance Company v Ansaldo (1) Phil Export v VP Eusebio (1) phil refining company v. ca (1) phil. refining company v. ca (1) Philamcare Health Systems (2) philippine (1) Philippine Airlines v. CA (3) Philippine American Life Insurance Company v Pineda (1) Philippine Bank of Commerce v. Jose M. Aruego (2) philippine blooming mills employment organization v. philippine blooming mills (2) Philippine Commercial International Bank v CA (1) Philippine Commercial v CA (1) philippine health care providers v estrada (1) philippine lawyer (2) philippine lawyers oath (1) Philippine National Bank v. Erlando Rodriguez (1) Philippine Phoenix Surety Insurance Co v Woodworks Inc (1) Philippine Pryce Assurance Corp v CA (1) Physical Injuries (2) pil (5) pila (9) pineda v ca (1) pink notes (1) Pioneer Insurance v. CA (2) Pirovano v. De la Rama Steamship Co. (2) planters product v. fertiphil corp (1) Planters Product v. Fertiphil Corp. (1) PNB v (2) pnb v ca (1) PNB v. CA (6) PNB v. National City Bank New York (2) PNB v. Ritratto Group (2) PNOC v CA (1) poeple v pirame (1) political law review (2) Ponce v. Alsons Cement Corp. (2) Porfirio P. Cinco v Hon Mateo Canonoy (1) possessory action (1) Potenciano v. Reynoso (1) Powers of Corporate Officers (2) prayer (1) Pre-Corporation Code (2) Pre-incorporation Subscription (2) Preemptive Rights (4) prescription (2) Prescription Period (3) prescription period for refund (1) Presentment for acceptance (2) Presentment for Payment (2) Presidential Immunity from Suit (1) preterition of surviving spouse (1) primary jurisdiction (2) private suit (2) pro reo doctrine (1) producers bank v ca (1) Professional Services (2) Professional Services Inc v Natividad and Enrique Agana (1) Promissory Notes (14) Proof and Proximate Cause (5) proof beyond reasonable doubt (2) proof of filiation (6) prosecution of offenses (4) Protest (2) proximate cause (6) Prudencio v. CA (2) Prudential Bank v. IAC (2) PUBLIC ACT NO. 521 (1) Public Enemy (1) Public humiliation (2) public international law (12) public international law case (7) public international law case digest (7) public suit (2) Public Utilities (2) Purchase Agreement (2) Qua Chee Gan v Law Union and Rock Insurance Co Ltd (1) qualified by (1) quasi delict (5) Quasi-delict (7) Quasi-negotiable Character of Certificate of Stock (2) Quinto v. Andres (2) Quirante v IAC (1) R.A. 8799 (1) Raagas v Traya (1) rabadilla v ca (1) radiowealth finance v. del rosario (2) rafael partricio v ca (1) Ramos v CA (1) Rationale for Centralized Management Doctrine (2) rcbc v. cir (2) Real Estate Mortgage (1) real party in interest (2) red notes (1) refund (1) Registered Lands (1) registration of property (1) reinsurance (1) Release from Subscription Obligation (2) remedial law (8) remedial law digest (2) remedy (2) Remo Jr. v. IAC (2) replevin (1) Republic of the Philippines v. Sps. Marcelino (1) Republic of the Phils. v. BPI (2) Republic Planters Bank v. CA (2) republic v. bagtas (1) Republic v. Ebrada (2) Requisites of Double insurance (1) Requisites of negotiability (8) Res Ipsa Loquitur (4) res ipso loquitor (1) res judicata (1) Restriction on Transfer (2) retroactivity of procedural rules (2) review (1) reviewer (7) revised penal code (2) revised rules of court (1) revocable Designation (1) reyes v ca (1) right against warrantless searches and seizures (2) Right of First Refusal (4) right of subrogation (1) Right of the holder (2) Rights (1) Rights of a holder (2) Rights of Holder (1) Rights of Holder against general indorser (1) Rights of the holder (6) Rights to Certificate of Stock for Fully Paid Shares (1) Rivera v. People (2) Rizal Commercial Banking Corporation v CA (1) rmc (1) rodelas v aranza (1) rodrigo concepcion v ca (1) Rodriguez (2) Rodriguez v. Hon. Presiding Judge of RTC Manila Branch 17 (2) Roman Catholic Apostolic Administrator of Davao v. LRC (2) Roman Catholic Bishop of Malolos v. IAC (2) roxas v de jesus (1) rpc (1) RR 12-99 (1) rtc (2) rul 39 (1) rule 110 (3) rule 111 (1) rule 45 (1) rule 60 (1) rule on summary procedure (1) rule-making authority of BIR (1) rules of court (2) Rules on cover notes (1) Sadaya v. Sevilla (2) Salas v. CA (2) sales (1) Sales de Gonzaga v Crown Life Insurance Co (1) samar mining v nordeutcher lloyd (1) san beda (1) san beda law (3) San Carlos Milling v. CIR (2) San Juan Structural v. CA (2) San Miguel Brewery v Law Union (1) sante v. claravall (1) saudi arabian airlines v ca (2) Saura Import Export Co v Philippine International Surety Co (1) sc (1) sc 173 (1) sec 229 NIRC (1) sec 12 (1) sec 13 (1) sec 1314 (1) Sec 17 (1) sec 177 of the insurance code (1) Sec 18 (1) Sec 189 (1) Sec 204 NIRC (1) Sec 228 NIRC (1) sec 28 (1) Sec 7 of RA 9282 (1) sec 77 (2) sec 84 (1) Sec. 1 - 8 (1) Sec. 17 - 23 (1) Sec. 21 (1) Sec. 24 - 29 (1) Sec. 3 (4) Sec. 30-50 (1) Sec. 39 (2) Sec. 51-59 (1) Sec. 8 of RA 1125 (1) Sec. 9 - 16 (1) Sec. of Justice v. Hon. Lantion (2) Sec.39 (2) SECOND DIVISION (46) second part (1) secondarily liable (1) secs 24 to 29 (1) Section 108(B)(3) of NIRC (1) Section 112 NIRC (1) Section 63 (2) securities and exchange commission (2) securities regulation code (1) Security Bank v. Rizal Commercial (2) Seguritan v. People (2) senator honasan (2) senator kiko pangilinan (1) senior citizen discount (2) sentence (1) Sep 21 (1) Separate Juridical Personality (1) Sept. 24 2002 (1) september (1) September 1 (4) September 11 (5) September 12 (2) September 14 (4) September 15 (5) September 16 (2) September 17 (2) September 18 (2) September 21 (5) September 22 (2) September 23 (2) September 24 (1) September 26 (4) September 27 (2) September 28 (6) September 29 (2) september 30 (4) September 4 (2) September 5 (4) September 7 (2) sharon cuneta (1) Sharuff Co v Baloise Fire Insurance Co (1) siliman (1) Silkair v. CIR (2) simple loan (2) Singapore Airlines v Hon Ernani Cruz Pano (1) SMART Communications v. Astrorga (1) So Ping Bun v ca (1) Social Security System v Davac (1) South African Airways v. CIR (2010) (2) South Sea Surety and Insurance Co v CA (1) Southern Luzon Employees and Ass v Golpeo (1) Special Rules on Experts and Professionals (2) Spouses Gironella v. PNB (2) src (1) SSS v Aguas (2) St Louis Realty Corporation v ca (1) State Investment House Inc. v. CA (2) stipulation pour autrui (3) Stipulations Cannot Be Segregated (2) Stock and Transfer Book (2) Stockholders of F. Guanzon and Sons (2) Stonehill v. Diokno (2) stop payment order (1) Strebel v Figueros (1) Strong Juridical Personality (2) study guide (1) sulpicio v ca (2) Sumaplong v CA (1) supply (1) supreme court (3) surety bond (1) sweet lines v teves (1) TA Jurisdiction (1) tagsibol (1) tagsibol book (1) Tai Tong Chuache v Insurance Commission (1) Tan v. SEC (2) Tan v. Sycip (2) Tanco Jr v Philippine Guaranty Co (1) tax (1) tax 2 (10) tax 2 case digest (5) tax avoidance (2) tax case digest (30) Tax Case Digest: City of Davao v. Randy Allied Ventures (1) tax credit (3) tax evasion (2) tax exemption (5) tax laws (1) tax refund (7) taxation (27) taxation case digest (3) Tayag v. Benguet (2) teleserv (1) Templation Inc (2) territoriality principle (1) The Universal Declaration on Human Rights (1) Theory of Concession (2) THIRD DIVISION (36) third part (1) tinga (1) Tiong v. Ting (2) To whom insurance proceeds payable (1) top 10 (1) top 3 bar exam tips (1) torts (4) torts and damages (172) torts and damages case digest (79) torts and damages notes outline (5) Traders Royal Bank v. CA (2) Traders Royal Bank v. Radio Philippines Network Inc (2) transcendental importance (1) Transfers (2) transportation (53) transportation case digest (27) Transportation notes (1) transportation notes outline (1) Travel-On v. CA (2) Treachery (2) Triple Eight v NLRC (1) Ty v First National Surety and Assurance Co Inc (1) Types of Acquisitions (2) Types of Acquisitions/Transfers (2) U.S. Jurisprudence (1) U.S. v. Bull (2) ultra vires (2) ultra vires act (1) unauthorized administrative legislation (1) unfair labor practice (2) Unfounded Suits (4) United States v. Wells (2) universal (1) universal declaration on human rights (1) university of the philippines (1) unjust dismissal (2) up law (1) up law review (1) US (4) US Jurisprudence (2) us v baggay (1) us v pineda (1) us v. ah sing (1) us v. look chaw (2) USA v. Hon. Purganan (1) uson v del rosario (1) ust (1) ust golden notes (1) ust notes (1) uy kaio eng v nixon lee (1) uy v sandiganbayan (1) valenzuela v ca (2) Valenzuela v. People (2) Valle Verde Country Club v. Africa (2) VAT refund claim (2) VAT tax refund (1) Vda Dde Consuegra v Governments Service Insurance System (1) Velasco v. People (2) Velasquez v. Solidbank Corp (2) Verendia v CA (1) Vicente R. de Ocampo v. Gatchalian (2) Villanueva v Oro (1) Villanueva v. Nite (2) Vinuya v. Malaya Lolas Organization (2) Violago v. BA Finance Corp (2) Violation of Civil and Political Rights (1) Violation of Human Dignity and Privacy (2) Voluntary Dealings (1) Voting Trust Agreements (2) waiver (2) Wee Sion Ben v. Semexco/Zest Markering Corp (2) when corporate officers (1) When Insurable Interest Must Exist (1) when negligent (2) White Gold Marine Services Inc v Pioneer Insurance Surety Corp (1) Who are liable after dissolution (2) Who Exercises Rights of Minor Insured or Beneficiaries (1) Who may recover (3) who or whom (1) wills and succession (38) withholding agent (2) Wright v Manila Electric (1) Wright v. CA (1) Writ of Habeas Data (1) writing (1) Yang v. CA (2) you and i (1) you and me (1) zaldiva v reyes (1) zero rated (1) zero-rated sales (1)