Like us on Facebook

Please wait..10 Seconds Cancel

Jurisprudence: G.R. No. L-81827


FIRST DIVISION


G.R. No. L-81827 March 28, 1994


PANTALEON DE LA PEÑA, petitioner, 
vs.
COURT OF APPEALS and HEROTIDO TAN, respondents.


Bienvenido D. Cariaga for petitioner.


Arsenio A. Latasa for private respondent.





BELLOSILLO, J.:


PANTALEON DELA PEÑA, petitioner herein, claiming preferential right to acquire ownership over a 3/4-hectare portion of Lot No. 5714-C, imputes fraud and misrepresentation to private respondent Herotido Tan in securing Free Patent No. (XI-6) 1326 and OCT No. P-7923 over the same. The action for reconveyance earlier filed by de la Peña was denied both by the trial court and the Court of Appeals. For reasons herein set forth, the present petition must also fail.


Ciriaco Reducto was occupying a 24-hectare parcel of land in Sulongvale, Sulop, Davao del Norte (previously Padada, Tanwalang, Davao), designated as Lot No. 5714, for which he filed Homestead Application No. 192495 (E-100806) with the Bureau of Lands. A certain Potenciano Nazaret likewise filed an application for the same lot. As a result, a case docketed as
B. L. Conflict No. 57 (N) arose in the Bureau of Lands wherein Nazaret's application and that of Ciriaco Reducto were "conflicted." Prior thereto however, by means of a "Deed of Relinquishment" dated 21 July 1946, 1 Ciriaco transferred his possessory rights over six (6) hectares (later increased to eight [8]) of Lot 5714 to petitioner Pantaleon de la Peña who thereafter entered his appearance in the administrative case when the portion transferred to him remained included in the homestead applications of Ciriaco Reducto and Potenciano Nazaret. After it was ascertained in a field verification that petitioner had a better right to acquire the portion claimed by him being its actual occupant and cultivator, the Director of Lands directed petitioner to apply for the portion himself within sixty (60) days after its survey or else "lose his preferential right thereto." 2 However, no such application was filed.


Meanwhile, on 7 March 1950, Ciriaco transferred his rights over another 1 1/2-hectare portion of Lot 5714 to Michael Doble 3 who in turn sold his rights in 1956 to Ricardo Tan, 4 herein private respondent's father. The portion sold to Michael Doble, and later on acquired by Ricardo Tan, became the western boundary of de la Peña's land.


On 24 and 25 August 1970, a survey was conducted by Engr. Pedro Sta. Cruz and Subdivision Plan Csd-11-001883-D 5 was prepared and approved by the Bureau of Lands wherein the portion acquired by petitioner was designated as Lot No. 5714-D, while that bought by Ricardo Tan was identified as Lot No. 5714-C. As a result of the survey, it was discovered that the land occupied by petitioner was bigger by 3/4 of a hectare than what he actually bought and paid for from Ciriaco. On the other hand, the land ceded to Doble (later acquired by Tan) was "very much smaller" than what he actually bought. Although the
3/4-hectare portion was part of the area acquired by Doble in 1950, it was petitioner de la Peña who cultivated the same without objection from Doble. However, when Ricardo Tan acquired the lot on 2 March 1956, he built a fence to reclaim the portion, but petitioner kept destroying it; hence, the start of a boundary dispute.


On 5 May 1975, Ricardo Tan transferred his rights over Lot 5714-C to his son, private respondent Herotido Tan, by means of "Affidavit of Relinquishment." 6 But the conflict over the 3/4-hectare portion continued. In an effort to resolve the conflict, a relocation survey was agreed upon except that the parties failed to agree on a common surveyor. Consequently, each party had to hire his own. Petitioner's surveyor conducted a relocation survey on 18 April 1977, while respondent's surveyor conducted his own five (5) days later. After it was determined that the 3/4-hectare portion was within Lot 5714-C of private respondent, the latter built a fence around the property to prevent petitioner from entering. The sugarcane and bananas planted by petitioner were destroyed in the process.


On 29 April 1977, petitioner filed a complaint for forcible entry against Ricardo Tan in the Municipal Trial Court of Sulop. 7 When it was discovered that private respondent Herotido Tan was the registered owner of Lot 5714-C under OCT No. P-7923 8 which was issued pursuant to Free Patent No. (XI-6) 1326 dated 15 September 1975, the complaint was accordingly amended to implead him.


The MTC ruled in favor of petitioner. 9 It concluded that petitioner had prior possession of the disputed 3/4-hectare portion and that he was prevented from entering the same by the fence constructed by private respondent. Stressing that "ownership is not the issue" but "only prior, physical and uninterrupted occupation and possession of the litigated area," the MTC ordered private respondent and his father, together with all other persons claiming under them, to vacate the litigated portion and restore possession to petitioner. The decision was affirmed on appeal by the then Court of First Instance (now Regional Trial Court) of Davao del Sur. 10


On 18 July 1977, during the pendency of the forcible entry case, petitioner instituted the present action for reconveyance with damages against private respondent in the Regional Trial Court of Davao del Sur and Davao City. 11 Petitioner alleged that private respondent fraudulently registered the 3/4-hectare portion actually cultivated by him when the former stated in his free patent application that "the land applied for is not claimed or occupied by any other person." In addition, petitioner denied that a survey was conducted in 1970; if at all, it was merely a "table survey." Incidentally, it was discovered in the survey that the area of petitioner's actual occupation exceeded that which he bought from Ciriaco Reducto in 1946.


After trial, the court rejected petitioner's denial of the 1970 Survey on the ground that he was already estopped from contesting it when he offered Subdivision Plan CSD-11-001883-D in evidence. Therefore, since the disputed 3/4-hectare portion was not part of the area bought and paid for in 1946 by petitioner, the latter was not entitled to reconveyance. Petitioner was declared a mere trespasser and planter in bad faith who was "enjoying freely the use of government property" without even applying for the same nor paying taxes thereon. His prayer for P5,000.00 as actual damages for the sugarcane and bananas destroyed on the disputed portion was denied. Instead, private respondent's counterclaim was granted and petitioner was ordered to pay P6,000.00 in attorney's fees and expenses of litigation, P15,000.00 for moral damages, and the costs of the proceedings. 12


Petitioner sought recourse to the Court of Appeals 13 reiterating his allegations of fraud and misrepresentation and, at the same time, contending that the judgment in the forcible entry case constituted res judicata on the action for reconveyance.


The Court of Appeals affirmed the appealed decision in toto 14 ruling that petitioner failed to substantiate his allegations of fraud and misrepresentation. On the contrary, as found by the lower court, the evidence showed that the requisites for the procurement of a free patent and original certificate of title were regularly complied with, i.e., a free patent application filed with the Bureau of Lands together with the affidavits of the applicant and two (2) witnesses, and giving notice of the application; the holding of an ocular inspection by the Land Examiner from the Bureau of Lands; the latter's recommendation for the approval of the application; and, the promulgation of the order for the issuance of the free patent on the basis of which an original certificate of title can be issued.


On the issue of res judicata, respondent Court of Appeals ruled that the fact that petitioner obtained a favorable judgment in the forcible entry case was not conclusive and did not ipso facto entitle him to a similar favorable judgment in the reconveyance case for the reason that while prior physical possession was the sole issue in the forcible entry case, that of lawful ownership or possession de jure was the issue disputed in the reconveyance case. Hence, the petition before us.


We dismiss the petition and adopt as our own the conclusions reached by the trial court and respondent Court of Appeals. In addition, we hold that petitioner Pantaleon de la Peña has absolutely no standing to institute the present suit for reconveyance.


It is well-settled that reconveyance is a remedy granted only to the owner of the property alleged to be erroneously titled in another's name. 15 In the case at bench, petitioner does not claim to be the owner of the disputed portion. Admittedly, what he has is only a "preferential right" to acquire ownership thereof by virtue of his actual occupation since January 1947. 16 However, petitioner's possession is not one that could ripen into ownership. Title to alienable public lands can be established through open, continuous, and exclusive possession for at least thirty (30) years. It must be noted that the dispute regarding the 3/4-hectare portion started even before a free patent and OCT could be issued to private respondent in 1975. As early as 1956, the controversy already began between petitioner and private respondent's father. Hence, petitioner's possession falls short of the required period. Not being the owner, petitioner cannot maintain the present suit.


Persons who have not obtained title to public lands could not question the titles legally issued by the State. 17 In such cases, the real party in interest is the Republic of the Philippines to whom the property would revert if it is ever established, after appropriate proceedings, that the free patent issued to the grantee is indeed vulnerable to annulment on the ground that the grantee failed to comply with the conditions imposed by the law. 18 Not being an applicant, much less a grantee, petitioner cannot ask for reconveyance.


However, we are inclined to delete the award for attorney's fees, moral damages and expenses of litigation. As correctly argued by petitioner, an award for attorney's fees and moral damages on the sole basis of an action later declared to be unfounded in the absence of a deliberate intent to cause prejudice to the other party is improper. 19 The right to litigate is so precious that a Penalty should not be charged on those who may exercise it erroneously. 20


WHEREFORE, premises considered, the Decision dated 21 December 1987 of respondent Court of Appeals sustaining that of the Regional Trial Court of Davao del Sur and Davao City dated 23 April 1984 is AFFIRMED, with the sole modification that the award for attorney's fees, expenses of litigation, and moral damages is DELETED.


SO ORDERED.


Cruz, Davide, Jr., Quiason and Kapunan, JJ., concur.





#Footnotes


1 Orig. Rec., p. 70.


2 Id., pp. 72-73.


3 See Exh. "1" ("Quitclaim Deed"), Folder of Exhibits for Defendant.


4 See Exh. "2" ("Quitclaim Deed"), Folder of Exhibits for Defendant.


5 See Folder of Exhibits for Defendant.


6 See Exh. "5," Folder of Exhibits.


7 Civil Case No. 62.


8 Exh. "6," Folder of Exhibits for Defendant.


9 Decision penned by Judge Rosalina L. Montejo, dated 20 February 1979.


10 Decision penned by Judge Marcelino M. Francisco, dated 3 November 1980, in Civil Case No. 1448.


11 De la Peña v. Tan, Civil Case No. 1176.


12 Decision penned by Judge Juan L. Montejo, dated 23 April 1984; Orig. Rec., pp. 290-312.


13 De la Peña v. Tan, CA-G.R. CV No. 04379.


14 Decision penned by Associate Justice Lorna S. Lombos-de la Fuente, concurred in by Associate Justices Ricardo J. Francisco and Alfredo L. Benipayo, dated 21 December 1987; Rollo, pp. 29-35.


15 Tomas v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 79328, 21 May 1990, 185 SCRA 627, 633; Esconde v. Barlongay, G.R. No. 67583, 31 July 1987, 152 SCRA 603, 611; Nebrada v. Heirs of Alivio, et al., 104 Phil. 126 (1958); Director of Lands v. Register of Deeds of Rizal, 92 Phil. 826 (1953); Azurin v. Quitoriano, et al., 81 Phil. 261 (1948).


16 Petition, p. 11; Rollo, p. 16.


17 Reyes v. Rodriguez, 62 Phil. 771, 776 (1936).


18 See Sec. 101 of CA 141 (Public Land Act); Lucas v. Durian, 102 Phil. 1157, 1158 (1957); Sumail v. Judge of the Court of First Instance of Cotabato, et al., 96 Phil. 946, 953 (1955).


19 Siasat v. Intermediate Appellate Court, G.R. No. 67889, 10 October 1985, 139 SCRA 238, 250; R & B Surety and Insurance Co., Inc. v. Intermediate Appellate Court, G.R. No. 64515, 22 June 1984, 129 SCRA 736, 745; Salao v. Salao, No. L-26699, 16 March 1976, 70 SCRA 65, 86; Ramos v. Ramos, No. L-19872, 3 December 1974, 61 SCRA 284, 306; Mercader v. Manila Polo Club, 99 Phil. 981, 985 (1956).


20 Albenson Enterprises Corporation v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 88694, 11 January 1993, 217 SCRA 16, 30; Garcia v. Gonzales, No. L-48184, 12 March 1990, 183 SCRA 72, 81; Filinvest Credit Corporation v. Mendez, G.R. No. 66419, 31 July 1987, 152 SCRA 593, 601.

Labels

04/19 (1) 1.2 (1) 11/20 (1) 121479 (1) 128604 (1) 1906 (1) 1909 (2) 1910 (13) 1911 (2) 1912 (1) 1914 (10) 1915 (6) 1917 (1) 1918 (9) 1920 (4) 1921 (1) 1922 (8) 1923 (2) 1925 (4) 1926 (4) 1927 (3) 1929 (1) 1930 (4) 1931 (4) 1932 (2) 1933 (4) 1935 (4) 1936 (2) 1937 (4) 1938 (1) 1940 (2) 1942 (5) 1943 (2) 1946 (2) 1948 (2) 1950 (2) 1951 (7) 1952 (3) 1953 (3) 1954 (8) 1955 (6) 1956 (2) 1957 (4) 1958 (3) 1960 (2) 1961 (6) 1961 Juris Doctor (2) 1962 (6) 1963 (7) 1964 (6) 1965 (4) 1966 (12) 1967 (11) 1968 (10) 1969 (2) 1970 (2) 1971 (2) 1972 (2) 1973 (3) 1974 (2) 1975 (10) 1976 (2) 1977 (6) 1978 (8) 1979 (6) 1980 (4) 1981 (8) 1982 (10) 1983 (8) 1984 (7) 1985 (3) 1986 (8) 1987 (7) 1987 Constitution (4) 1988 (10) 1989 (18) 1990 (15) 1991 (12) 1992 (26) 1992.Nature of Certificate of Stock (2) 1993 (21) 1994 (18) 1995 (15) 1996 (9) 1997 (26) 1997 rules of civil procedure (1) 1998 (21) 1999 (38) 2/10 (1) 2000 (21) 2001 (21) 2002 (19) 2003 (28) 2004 (5) 2005 (14) 2006 (40) 2007 (22) 2008 (24) 2009 (9) 2010 (9) 2011 (4) 2012 (4) 2012 bar exam results (1) 212 U.S. 449 (2) 246 Corporation v. Daway (2) 283 U.S. 102 (2) 295 U.S. 247 (2) 309 U.S. 78 (2) 997 (1) A.M. No. 190 (2) A.M. No. MTJ-92-716 (2) A.M. No. RTJ-02-1673 (2) A.M. No. RTJ-07-2062 (1) A.M. RTJ-07-2062 (1) abandoned (1) Aboitiz Shipping Corp v Insurance Co of North America (1) ABSCBN v. CA (1) acceptance (2) acceptance by obligee (1) Accommodation (2) Accommodation Party (17) accomodation party (5) Acknowledgement receipt (1) acop v piraso (1) Actionable Document (10) Actual or Compensatory Damage (1) administrative expenses (2) Aggravating circumstance (2) Agro Conglomerates Inc. v. CA (2) Aisporna v CA (1) ajero v ca (1) Algarra v Sandejas (1) Allied Banking Corp. v. CA (2) Allied Banking Corp. v. Lim Sio Wan (2) allowable administrative expenses (2) Alteration (8) alvarado v galviola (1) Ambiguous Provisions Interpreted Against Insurer (2) American Home Assurance Co v Chua (1) Ancillary Contracts (3) Ang v. Associated Bank (2) applicability of provisions (6) application and problems (1) April 11 (1) April 12 (2) April 13 (2) April 16 (2) April 18 (4) April 19 (2) April 20 (4) April 22 (2) April 23 (1) April 25 (4) April 26 (2) April 27 (2) April 28 (1) April 29 (3) April 3 (4) April 30 (2) April 8 (2) April 9 (4) Areola v CA (1) art 1106 (1) art 1106 civil code (1) art 1107 (1) art 1173 (1) art 1174 servando v philippine steam navigation (1) art 1245 (1) art 1255 (1) art 1263 (1) art 14 rpc (2) art 1504 (1) art 1523 (1) art 1736 (1) art 19 (2) art 1902 (1) art 2 rpc (3) Art 20 (1) art 2087 (1) art 21 (4) Art 2176 (3) art 2180 (1) art 2208 (1) art 2217 (1) art 2219 (3) art 2229 (1) art 225 (1) art 23 (2) art 26 (2) Art 3 RPC (2) art 32 (1) art 4 rpc (6) art 6 rpc (2) art 64 (1) art 65 (1) art. 1 (2) ART. 1089 (2) art. 15 (2) Art. 17 (1) Art. 1733 (2) Art. 1734 (2) Art. 1736 (2) Art. 175 (1) Art. 1755 (4) Art. 1756 (2) Art. 1759 (2) Art. 1763 (2) Art. 1910 (1) art. 2 (1) art. 2 civil code (1) art. 2 rpc (2) Art. 2011 Civil Code (1) ART. 2208 (1) Art. 26 (1) art. 3 (1) art. 41 (1) art. 6 rpc (6) Art. XII (4) art.3 rpc (1) Article 1 RPC (2) Article 1173 (1) Article 1191 (1) Article 1249 of the New Civil Code (1) Article 1764 (1) Article 2206 (1) Article 2208 (1) Article 2219 (1) Article 2220 (1) Article 2232 of the Civil Code (1) Article X (1) Assignee (1) Assoc. Bank and Conrado Cruz v. CA (2) Associated Bank v. CA (1) Associated Bank v. CA (1) Associated Bank v. Pronstroller (2) Astro Electronics Corp. v. Phil. Export (2) ateneo (2) ateneo law (6) ateneo law school (1) Atrium Management Corp. v. CA (2) Attempted (2) attempted murder (2) Attempted or Frustrated Stage (2) attempted rape (3) Attempter (2) attoryneys fees (1) Atty. Ferrer v Sps. Diaz (1) August 06 (2) August 1 (2) August 10 (2) August 11 (4) August 12 (1) August 15 (2) August 17 (4) August 18 (2) August 20 (2) August 21 (2) August 22 (2) August 23 (5) August 25 (1) August 28 (2) August 29 (4) August 3 (2) August 30 (1) August 31 (9) August 5 (1) August 6 (6) August 9 (2) Authoried Driver Clause (1) Authority to Receive Payment (1) Authority to Receive Payment/Effect of Payment (1) authorized driver (1) avera v garcia (1) azaola v singson (1) aznar v garcia (1) azuela v ca (1) Bachrach Motor Co v. Lacson Ledesma (2) Bachrach v British American Assurance Co (1) bagtas v paguio (1) Balanay Jr. v. Martinez (2) baleros v. people (2) Baliwag Transit Corp. v. CA (1) baliwag v. ca (1) baltazar v laxa (1) Bank of America v CA (1) bank products (1) bar exam (4) bar exam result (2) bar exams (1) Bataan Cigar v. CA (2) Bautista v. Auto Plus Traders (2) Bayla v. Silang Traffic Co. (2) bellis v bellis (1) Bellis vs Bellis (1) benguet electric cooperative v ca (1) Bernabe Castillo et al v Hon Court of Appeals (1) bigamy (3) Bill of Lading (2) binding effect of payment (2) birth certificate (1) Blood Relationship (3) Bonifacio Bros v Mora (1) bonnevie v. ca (1) bosal holding bv v stratessecretaris van financier (1) bpi investment corp v ca (2) BPI v. CA (3) BPI v. Fidelity (2) British Airways v. CA (2) Bull v. United States (2) business (1) Business Economics (3) Business Economics notes (4) buy bust operation (1) Calculation of Risk (1) Calimutan v. People (1) Caltex v. CA (1) Caltex (Phils.) Inc. v. CA and Security Bank and Trust Co (1) Caltex v Sulpicio Lines (1) Calvo v UCPB Gen Insurance Co (1) Caneda Jr. v. CA (2) caneda v ca (1) Cangco v MRR (1) canlas v ca (1) Capital Insurance Surety Co Inc v Plastic Era (1) Carlos Arcona y Moban v CA (1) carriage (1) CARRIAGE OF GOODS BY SEA ACT (2) Carrier or Depositary (1) case (5) Case C-168/ (1) Case Digest (355) case digests (1) case digst (1) Case Method Notes (1) case overview (1) cases (34) Cases where Moral Damage is allowed (1) Cases where Moral damages are allowed (1) Cebu International Finance Corp. v. CA (2) cenomar (1) centennial prayer (1) Centralized Management Doctrine (2) Cerrano v Tan (1) certainty (2) Certificate of stock (2) Cha v CA (1) characterization (2) charter party (4) Checks (14) chico-nazario (1) Ching v. Sec. of Justice (3) CIA Maritima v. Insurance Co (2) cir v Lincoln Philippine Life Insurance (1) Civil Code (1) civil law review (3) civil procedure (3) civil procedure codals (1) Civil Procedure Notes Outline (1) Clear Provision Given Ordinary Meaning (1) Co v. Admiral United Savings Bank (2) Codals (2) Code of Professional Responsibility (1) codoy v calugay (1) cogsa (1) Cometa v CA (1) commerce (1) commercial law (2) commercial law review (1) commercial law reviewer (1) commodatum (1) common grammatical error (2) complete list (1) Complex Electric v NLRC (1) concept of moral damages (1) conflict of law case digest (3) conflict of laws (12) conflicts of law Notes Outline (1) conflicts of laws (2) conflicts of laws review (2) connecting factor (2) consideration (25) Consolidated Bank v. CA (1) Consolidated Plywood v. IFC (2) conspiracy (4) Constantino v Asia Life Insurance Co (1) Constitution (2) constitutional law (6) consummated crime (2) contract of adhesion (2) Contracting Parties (3) Coquia v Fieldmens Insurance Co Inc (1) cornelio amaro v Ambrocio Sumanguit (1) coronel v ca (1) corporate criminal liability (4) Corporate Law (81) Corporate Law Case Digest (42) Corporate Law Notes (6) Corporate Law Notes Outline (1) corporate negligence (1) Corporate Officers or employees (3) Corporation by estoppel doctrine (2) court (1) courts (1) cover notes (1) coverage (1) credit in life and health insurance (1) credit transactions (10) crim law 1 (65) criminal acts not immune (2) criminal law (10) criminal liability (1) criminal procedure (7) Crismina Garments v CA (1) cruz v villasor (1) cuevas v achacoso (1) Damages (4) Dangwa Transportation Co. Inc. v. CA (2) Datu Tagoranao Benito v. SEC (2) DBP v CA (1) de castro (1) de la cruz v capital ins (1) De la Pena v CA (1) De los Santos v. Republic (2) Dealings Between Corporation and Stockholders (2) Dealings with Corp. and Stockholders (2) death certificate (1) December 10 (2) December 12 (1) December 14 (3) December 16 (5) December 17 (5) December 18 (2) December 2 (2) December 20 (5) December 21 (6) December 23 (2) December 27 (1) December 28 (2) December 29 (5) December 3 (2) December 7 (1) December 8 (5) December 9 (2) Dee v. SEC (2) Defective attempt to form (2) defense of stranger (1) defenses (2) Definition and Concept of Damages (2) Definition and Coverage of Casualty Insurance (2) Definition and Coverage of Life Insurance (1) Definition of a Close Corporation (2) definition of felony (2) Degrees of Negligence (2) Del Rosario v CA (1) Del Rosario v Equitable Ins. and Casualty Co (1) Del Val v Del Val (1) delfin lim v Francisco Ponce De Leon (1) Delgado Brothers (2) demand (1) Demand and Supply Analysis (2) deposits (1) Dereliction of Duty (1) Determinants (1) Director of Lands v. CA (2) Director of Lands v. IAC (2) Discharge of instrument (2) Disqualification (1) divorce (2) Doctor (1) Doctrine of Piercing (1) Doctrine of Processual Presumption (1) documents processing (1) Doing an Insurance Business (1) donation (4) dorotheo v ca (1) Double insurance (1) double taxation (1) Dy v. People (2) Edward J. Nell Co. v. Pacific Farms Inc (2) Effect of Change of Interest (1) Effect of Change of Interest in Thing Insured (2) Effect of Lack of Insurable Interest (3) effect of non payment (2) Effect of Payment (1) effect of transfer (1) El Oriente Fabrica de Tabacos Inc v Posadas (1) Election of Directors; Vacancy in the Board (2) Elements (2) elements of quasi delict (3) emergency rule (1) en banc (74) Enervida v dela Torre (1) Engada v CA (1) english 101 (2) enriquez v abadia (1) Enriquez v Sun Life Assurance (1) equilibrium (1) Equitable PCI Bank v. Ong (2) erap v sandiganbayan (2) Ernesto Medina v Hon Floreliana Castro-Bartolome (1) estate (1) estate tax (2) estoppel (2) Estoppel and credit extension (2) Eternal Gardens Memorial Park Corp v Philippine American Life Insurance (1) Everett Streamship Corp. v. CA (2) Evident Premeditation (2) EX criminally liable civilly liable (2) Exception to Ambiguous Provisions Interpreted Against Insurer (1) exception to perfection (1) Exceptions to Contracting Parties (4) existing interest (5) expert and professionals (1) Expert Travel v CA (1) experts and professionals (1) Exploitation of Natural Resources (2) Factors in determining amount (7) FACTS (1) factual situation (2) family code (3) Far East Bank Trust v. Gold Palace Jewelry (2) far eastern university (1) Fausto Barredo v. Severino Garcia (2) fc (1) Feati University v. Bautista (1) february 15 (4) February 16 (2) February 18 (4) February 19 (2) February 2 (3) February 21 (2) February 22 (4) February 23 (2) February 24 (2) February 25 (3) February 26 (4) February 27 (6) February 28 (8) February 29 (4) February 4 (2) February 5 (2) February 6 (5) February 7 (2) February 8 (2) February 9 (11) Federico Ylarde v Edgardo Aquino (1) felonies (1) felony (1) fernando v ca (1) feu (1) FGU Insurance Corporation v CA (1) Fictitious Persons (2) Filipinas Compania de Seguros v Christern Henefeld (1) Filipinas Port v. Go (2) Filipino Merchants Insurance Co v CA (1) first division (54) first part (1) Fleischer v. Botica Nolasco Co (2) foreigner (2) forgery (21) Fortune Insurance and Surety Co v CA (1) forum non conveniens (1) fqs (1) Francisco v GSIS (1) Francisco v. CA (2) Frustrated (2) frustrated or consummated theft (2) Fuentes v CA (1) Fule v CA (1) Fully Paid Shares (1) G. R. No. 160188 (1) G. R. No. 116320 (1) G. R. No. 160188 (1) G. R. No. 164317 (1) G. R. No. 164317 February 6 (2) G.R. 79050-51 (1) G.R. No 48196 (2) G.R. No. 146635 (2) G.R. No. 166862 (1) G.R. No. 168100 November 20 (1) G.R. No. 101163 (2) G.R. No. 101503 (2) G.R. No. 102253 (2) G.r. No. 102342 (2) G.R. No. 102383 (2) G.R. No. 103119 (2) G.R. No. 103379 (2) G.R. No. 103554 (1) G.R. No. 103577 (1) G.R. No. 104376 (1) G.R. No. 104376 February 23 (1) G.R. No. 105562 (2) G.R. No. 105774 (2) G.R. No. 105836 (2) G.R. No. 106720 (1) G.R. No. 107062 (2) G.R. No. 107382 (1) G.R. No. 107382/G.R. No. 107612 (1) G.R. No. 107508 (2) G.R. No. 107518 (2) G.R. No. 107612 (1) G.R. No. 108017 (2) G.R. No. 108581 (1) G.R. No. 109491 (1) G.R. No. 111584 (2) G.R. No. 111692 (2) G.R. No. 112160 (3) G.R. No. 112212 (2) G.R. No. 112287 (1) G.R. No. 112287 December 12 (1) G.R. No. 112392 (2) G.R. No. 112573 (2) G.R. No. 113578 (2) G.R. No. 113725 (1) G.R. No. 113899 (1) G.R. No. 114061 (3) G.R. No. 114118 (2) G.R. No. 115024 (1) G.R. No. 115117 (2) G.R. No. 115156 (2) G.R. No. 115278 (2) G.R. No. 116320 (1) G.R. No. 116736 (2) G.R. No. 117660 (2) G.R. No. 118325 (2) G.R. No. 118342 (1) G.R. No. 118357 (2) G.R. No. 119176 (2) G.R. No. 120135 (2) G.R. No. 120262 (2) G.R. No. 120554 (2) G.R. No. 120706 (2) G.R. No. 120988 (2) G.R. No. 121315 (2) G.R. No. 121413 (2) G.R. No. 121479 (1) G.R. No. 121828 (2) G.R. No. 121998 (2) G.R. No. 122099 (2) G.R. No. 122191 (2) G.R. No. 122494 (2) G.R. No. 122880 (1) G.R. No. 123031 (2) G.R. No. 123404 (2) G.R. No. 123486 (1) G.R. No. 124050 (2) G.R. No. 124062 (2) G.R. No. 124099 (1) G.R. No. 124354 (2) G.R. No. 124371 (2) G.R. No. 124520 (2) G.R. No. 125678 (2) G.R. No. 125835 (1) G.R. No. 125851 (2) G.R. No. 125865 (2) G.R. No. 126204 (2) G.R. No. 126297 (3) G.R. No. 126405 (1) G.R. No. 126518 (2) G.R. No. 126670 December 2 (2) G.R. No. 127326 (2) G.R. No. 127823 (2) G.R. No. 128286 (2) G.R. No. 128604 (1) G.R. No. 128690 (2) G.R. No. 128721 (2) G.R. No. 129433 (2) G.R. No. 129459 (2) G.R. No. 129584 (2) G.R. No. 129792 (2) G.R. No. 129910 (2) G.R. No. 130030 (2) G.R. No. 130421 (2) G.R. No. 131166 (1) G.R. No. 131621 (1) G.R. No. 132403 (2) G.R. No. 132419 (2) G.R. No. 133179 (2) G.R. No. 133632 (2) G.R. No. 134784 (2) G.R. No. 136448 (1) G.R. No. 136448 November 3 (1) G.R. No. 136729 (2) G.R. No. 137775 (1) G.R. No. 138033 (2) G.R. No. 138074 (2) G.R. No. 138322 (1) G.R. No. 138510 (2) G.R. No. 138569 (2) G.R. No. 138739 (2) G.R. NO. 139802 (2) G.R. No. 140006-10 (2) G.R. No. 140047 (2) G.R. No. 140698 (3) G.R. No. 140707 (2) G.R. No. 142616 (2) G.R. No. 143838 (2) G.R. No. 144476 (2) G.R. No. 145804 (3) G.R. No. 146511 (2) G.R. NO. 146779 (2) G.R. No. 147746 (2) G.R. No. 147839 (2) G.R. No. 148211 (2) G.R. No. 148444 (1) G.R. No. 148496 (1) G.R. No. 148560 (2) G.R. No. 149038 (2) G.R. No. 151969 (2) G.R. No. 152133 (2) G.R. No. 153898 October 18 (2) G.R. No. 154127 (2) G.R. No. 154469 (2) G.R. No. 154514 (1) G.R. No. 154740 (2) G.R. No. 15566 (1) G.R. No. 155791 (2) G.R. No. 156167 (2) G.R. No. 156207 (2) G.R. No. 156294 (2) G.R. No. 157216 (2) G.R. No. 157309 (2) G.R. No. 157451 (1) G.R. No. 157833 (1) G.R. No. 157906 (3) G.R. No. 158262 (2) G.R. No. 158312 (2) G.R. No. 159747 (1) G.R. No. 161886 (1) G.R. No. 1641 (1) G.R. No. 165300 (1) G.R. No. 165483 (2) G.R. No. 165546 (2) G.R. No. 165842 (2) G.R. No. 166245 (2) G.R. No. 166326 (2) G.R. No. 166405 (2) G.R. No. 166479 (2) G.R. No. 167330 (2) g.r. no. 167571 (1) G.R. No. 168100 November 20 (1) G.R. No. 168115 (2) G.R. No. 168274 (2) G.R. No. 168402 (2) G.R. No. 170325 (2) G.R. No. 170984 (2) G.R. No. 171052 (2) G.R. No. 172896 (2) G.R. No. 172966 (2) G.R. No. 174489 (1) G.R. No. 176831 (1) G.R. No. 178523 (2) G.R. No. 17958 (2) G.R. No. 179859 (1) G.R. No. 181132 (2) G.R. No. 183526 (1) G.R. No. 20341 (2) G.R. No. 23703 (2) G.R. No. 34774 (2) G.R. No. 44119 (2) G.R. No. 48541 (2) G.R. No. 6659 (2) G.R. No. 71871 (1) G.R. No. 72110 (2) G.R. No. 72593 (2) G.R. No. 73886 (2) G.R. No. 74695 (1) G.R. No. 74761 (2) G.R. No. 74886 (2) G.R. No. 75605 (2) G.R. No. 76452 (2) G.R. No. 76788 (2) G.R. No. 80294-95 (1) G.R. No. 80447 (2) G.R. No. 81322 (2) G.R. No. 83122 (2) G.R. No. 84197 (1) G.R. No. 84197 July 28 (2) G.R. No. 85141 (3) G.R. No. 88724 (2) G.R. No. 88866 (2) G.R. No. 89802 (2) G.R. No. 89880 (2) G.R. No. 92087 (1) G.R. No. 92244 (2) G.R. No. 92288 (3) G.R. No. 93048 (2) G.R. No. 93073 (2) G.R. No. 93397 (2) G.R. No. 93695 (2) G.R. No. 94071 (2) G.R. No. 95322 (2) G.R. No. 95529 (2) G.R. No. 95546 (1) G.R. No. 95582 (3) G.R. No. 95641 (2) G.R. No. 95696 (2) G.R. No. 95696. March 3 (2) G.R. No. 97336 (2) G.R. No. 97626 (2) G.R. No. 97753 (2) G.R. No. 99301 (2) G.R. No. L-12189 (2) G.R. No. L-12190 (1) G.R. No. L-12191 (2) G.R. No. L-12219 (2) G.R. No. L-12736 (2) G.R. No. L-12858 (2) G.R. No. L-12907 (2) G.R. No. L-13005 (1) G.R. No. L-14003 (1) G.R. No. L-14074 (1) G.R. No. L-14300 (2) G.R. No. L-14441 (1) G.R. No. L-14441 December 17 (1) G.R. No. L-14986 (2) G.R. No. L-15126 (2) G.R. No. L-15184 (2) G.R. No. L-15894 (2) G.R. No. L-15895 (2) G.R. No. L-16138 (2) G.R. No. L-16215 (2) G.R. No. L-16567 (2) G.R. No. L-1669 (2) G.R. No. L-16749 (1) G.R. No. L-17312 (1) G.R. No. L-17474 (2) G.R. No. L-17845 (2) G.R. No. L-18216 (2) G.R. No. L-18287 (2) G.R. No. L-18657 (2) G.R. No. L-18924 (2) G.R. No. L-18965 (3) G.R. No. L-18979 (1) G.R. No. L-19189 (2) G.R. No. L-20081 (2) G.R. No. L-20357 (1) G.R. No. L-20434 (2) G.R. No. L-20850 (2) G.R. No. L-20853 (2) G.R. No. L-21278 (2) G.R. No. L-21291 (2) G.R. No. L-21380 (2) G.R. No. L-21462 (2) G.R. No. L-21500 (2) G.R. No. L-21574 (2) G.R. No. L-21642 (2) G.R. No. L-22042 (2) G.R. No. L-2227 (2) G.R. No. L-22375 (1) G.R. No. L-22554 (2) G.R. No. L-22595 (1) G.R. No. L-22796 (2) G.R. No. L-2294 (2) G.R. No. L-23145 (1) G.R. No. L-23145 November 29 (2) G.R. No. L-23241 (2) G.R. No. L-23276 (2) G.R. No. L-23678 (2) G.R. No. L-24803 (2) G.R. No. L-24978 (2) G.R. No. L-25317 (2) G.R. No. L-25845 (2) G.R. No. L-25920 (2) G.R. No. L-26743 (2) G.R. No. L-26767 (2) G.R. No. L-27155 (2) G.R. No. L-28093 (2) G.R. No. L-28120 (2) G.R. No. L-2861 (2) G.R. No. L-28673 (2) G.R. No. L-28946 (1) G.R. No. L-29276 (2) G.R. No. L-29432 (2) G.R. No. L-30389 (2) G.R. No. L-30896 (1) G.R. No. L-32213 (1) G.R. No. L-32611 (2) G.R. No. L-33171 (2) G.R. No. L-3362 (1) G.R. No. L-33722 (2) G.R. No. L-34539 (2) G.R. No. L-34539 July 14 (1) G.R. No. L-3497 (1) G.R. No. L-35095 (2) G.R. No. L-35262 (2) G.R. No. L-35283 (2) G.R. No. L-36481-2 (2) G.R. No. L-37750 (2) G.R. No. L-38037 (2) G.R. No. L-38338 (1) G.R. No. L-38613 (2) G.R. No. L-38684 (2) G.R. No. L-38816 (2) G.R. No. L-39050 (2) G.R. No. L-39247 (2) G.R. No. L-39419 (2) G.R. No. L-40207 (1) G.R. No. L-4067 (1) G.R. No. L-40796 (2) G.R. No. L-4170 (1) G.R. No. L-4197 (2) G.R. No. L-42462 (2) G.R. No. L-43191 (2) G.R. No. L-43596 (1) G.R. No. L-44059 (2) G.R. No. L-44837 (1) G.R. No. L-45637 (2) G.R. No. L-46061 (2) G.R. No. L-4611 (1) G.R. No. L-46558 (2) G.R. No. L-4722 (2) G.R. No. L-47722 (2) G.R. No. L-47739 (2) G.R. No. L-48006 (3) G.R. No. L-4818 (2) G.R. No. L-48195 (2) G.R. No. L-48250 (2) G.R. No. L-48321 (1) G.R. No. L-48757 (3) G.R. No. L-48796 (2) G.R. No. L-49101 (2) G.R. No. L-49188 (2) G.R. No. L-49390 (2) G.R. No. L-4963 (1) G.R. No. L-4977 (2) G.R. No. L-50373 (2) G.R. No. L-50959 (2) G.R. No. L-51806 (2) G.R. No. L-51832 (2) G.R. No. L-5270 (2) G.R. No. L-5272 (4) G.R. No. L-5377 (1) G.R. No. L-54216 (2) G.R. No. L-55079 (2) G.R. No. L-55397 (2) G.R. No. L-56169 June 26 (1) G.R. No. L-56487 (2) G.R. No. L-56655 (2) G.R. No. L-5715 (2) G.R. No. L-58509 (1) G.R. No. L-58867 (2) G.R. No. L-5887 (2) G.R. No. L-59825 (2) G.R. No. L-59919 (2) G.R. No. L-60502 (2) G.R. No. L-6055 (2) G.R. No. L-6114 (2) G.R. No. L-62943 (2) G.R. No. L-6442 (1) G.R. No. L-67626 (2) G.R. No. L-67835 (2) G.R. No. L-6801 (1) G.R. No. L-69044 (1) G.R. No. L-7188 (1) G.R. No. L-7664 (2) G.R. No. L-7667 (2) G.R. No. L-7760 (2) G.R. No. L-7991 (2) G.R. No. L-8110 (2) G.R. No. L-81827 (3) G.R. No. L-8385 (2) G.R. No. L-8451 (2) G.R. No. L-8527 (1) G.R. No. L-8844 (2) G.R. No. L-9356 (2) G.R. No. L-9374 (2) G.R. No. L-9401 (2) G.R. No. L-9671 (1) G.R. No.113558 (1) G.R. No.148496 (1) G.R. No.L-17312 (1) G.R. No.L-4611 (1) G.R. Nos. 113255-56 (2) G.R. Nos. 128833 (1) G.R. Nos. L-21353 and L-21354 (2) G.R. Nos. L-25836-37 (2) G.R. Nos. L-28324-5 (2) G.R.No. 113899 (1) G.R.No. 115024 (2) G.R.No. 118367 (1) G.R.No. 131166 (1) G.R.No. 137775 (1) G.R.No. 154514 (1) G.R.No. 159747 (1) G.R.No. L-22375 (1) G.R.No. L-9671 (1) G.R.No.113558 (1) G.R.Nos. 128833 (1) Gaisano Cagayan v Insurance Company of North America (1) gallardo v morales (1) gan v yap (1) Ganzon v. CA (2) garcia v gatchalian (1) Garcia v Hongkong Fire Marine Insurance Co (1) garcia v lacuesta (1) Garcia v. Llamas (2) Garcia – Recio v Recio (1) Garcia – Recio vs Recio (1) Gashem Shookat Baksh v CA (1) Gatbonton v. NLRC and Mapua (2) Gatchalian v Delim (1) Gelano v. CA (2) Gempesaw v. CA (2) General Indorser (3) general power of appointment (2) General Principles on Insurance (4) General Provisions (2) Gercio v. Sun Life Assurance Co. of Canada (1) German Garcia v The Hon Mariano M Florido et al (1) gil v murciano (1) gilchrist v cuddy (1) golden notes (1) Gonzales v. RCBC (2) Good Father of a Family (3) GR 138322 (1) GR No. L-26001 (2) grammar (2) grammar rules (2) grammatical error (2) grand union supermarket v jose espino (1) grandfather rule (2) Great Asian Sales Center Corp. v. CA (2) Great Eastern Life Ins. Co. v. Hongkong Shanghai Bank (2) Great Pacific Life Assurance Corp v CA (1) guide (1) guingon v Del Monte (1) Gulf Resorts Inc v Philippine Charter Insurance Corp (1) Gullas v. PNB (2) he or she (1) Heirs of Borlado v Vda De Bulan (1) Heirs of Loreto C. Maramag v Maramag (1) heirs of pdro tayag v hon fernando alcantara (1) Hi Cement Corp. v. Insular Bank (1) Hi-Cement Corp. v. Insular Bank (1) him or her (1) Holder in Due Course (2) honasan case (1) Honasan v The Panel of Investigating Prosecutor (1) icasiano v icasiano (1) Ilano v. CA (2) illegal provision in a will (1) illegitimate children (1) imelda marcos (1) immediate cause of which was the peril insured against (1) importance of accounting (1) in contemplation of death (2) In Re Mario v Chanliongco (1) in re will of riosa (1) Inc (4) Inc v Home Insurance (2) Inc v. CA (2) Inc v. Register of Deeds of Manila (2) Inc. v. CA (2) income tax (2) Incomplete instruments (2) indeterminate sentence law (4) insanity (1) installment sales law (1) Insular Drugs v. PNB (2) insular life assurance co v ebrado (1) insurance (134) insurance act (1) insurance agent (1) Insurance Broker (1) insurance case digest (72) insurance code (5) insurance law reviewer (2) insurance notes (3) insurance notes outline (3) Insurance reviewer (1) Insured Outlives Policy (1) Integrated Packing v CA (1) intent (2) interest (1) Interference with Contractual Relations (2) International Corp. Bank v. CA (2) International taxation (2) intod v. ca (2) intoxication (1) Introduction to Negotiable Instruments (6) Invalid Designation (4) IPL (2) IPL case digest (2) Irrevocable Designation (2) Isaac v AL Ammen Trans Co (1) j marketing v Sia (1) jaboneta v gustilo (1) Jai-Alai Corp. of the Phil. v. BPI (2) Jan 18 (1) January 11 (2) January 15 (3) January 16 (1) January 18 (1) January 19 (3) January 21 (4) January 22 (5) January 23 (2) January 25 (2) January 28 (7) January 29 (9) January 30 (10) January 31 (13) January 5 (2) jarco marketing v ca (1) Joaquinita P Capili v Sps Dominador and Rosalita Cardana (1) judge fernando vil pamintuan (1) Judicial Construction Cannot Alter Terms (1) judicial declaration of presumptive death (1) July 11 (2) July 13 (1) July 14 (7) July 16 (1) July 17 (2) July 18 (2) July 19 (6) July 20 (2) July 21 (2) July 23 (2) July 24 (2) July 26 (2) July 27 (2) July 28 (3) July 29 (2) july 3 (2) July 30 (5) July 31 (10) July 5 (2) July 6 (2) July 8 (3) June 11 (2) June 12 (2) June 16 (2) June 19 (2) June 2 (2) june 20 (3) June 21 (2) June 22 (4) June 25 (2) June 26 (2) June 27 (4) June 28 (2) June 29 (3) June 30 (5) June 5 (2) June 6 (2) June 8 (5) Juris Doctor (653) jurisdiction (3) jurisprudence (390) Jurisprudence: G.R. No. 153468 (2) kalaw v relova (1) Kierulf v CA (1) Kinds (1) kinds of damage (1) Korean Airlines Co. LTd v. CA (2) labor (4) labor law (4) labor relations (2) Lambert v. Fox (2) Lampano v. Jose (1) Land Titles and Deeds (14) Land Titles and Deeds Case Digest (7) Land Titles and Deeds Notes (5) Land Titles and Deeds Notes Outline (1) lanters products inc v ca (1) last clear chance (6) law (4) law reviewer (1) law reviewer political law (2) laws (2) lawyer (2) lawyer laughs (1) lawyers code (1) lawyers code of professional responsibility (1) lawyers oath (1) lawyers pledge (1) Lazatin v Twano (1) Lee v. CA (2) legal effect (3) legal ethics (1) legal jokes (1) legal updates (1) legitimation (2) lethal ethics (1) Liabilities (1) Liabilities did not sign (1) Liabilities of Parties (2) Liabilities of person who did not sign (1) liabilities of the parties (17) Liability for Torts (4) liability of an agent (2) liability of insurer for suicide and accidental death (1) Liang v. People (2) litonjua v montilla (1) llorente v ca (1) Llorente vs CA (1) Lopez v Del Rosario and Quiogue (1) Lopez v Pan American (1) loss (1) loss caused by negligence of the insurance (1) LRTA v. Navidad (2) Magellan Mfg Marketing Corp v CA (1) Makati Sports Club Inc v. Cecile Cheng (2) mala in se (2) Malayan Insurance v CA (1) Malayan Insurance Co v Arnaldo (1) malice (3) malum prohibitum (2) Manila Lighter Transportation Inc. v. CA (2) Manila Metal Container Corp. v. PNB (1) Manuel v. People (2) Marcelo Macalinao v Eddie Medecielo Ong (1) March 1 (3) March 13 (2) March 14 (5) March 15 (4) March 16 (3) March 18 (2) March 19 (8) March 2 (2) March 20 (2) March 22 (2) March 24 (2) March 26 (2) March 27 (6) March 28 (7) March 3 (4) March 30 (9) March 31 (7) March 7 (2) March 9 (4) Marcos v. Judge Fernando Vil. Pamintuan (1) Maria Benita A. Dulay v The Court of Appeals (1) marinduque v workmens (1) marriage (2) marriage certificate (1) master of business and administration (1) Maulini v. Serrano (2) May 1 (2) May 16 (2) May 18 (5) May 19 (4) may 20 (4) May 23 (2) May 25 (2) May 26 (2) May 28 (1) May 29 (3) may 30 (3) May 31 (6) May 6 (2) May 8 (2) May 9 (2) MBA (5) MBA Notes (4) me or I (1) measure of indemnity (1) measure of insurable interest (1) Memorize (1) memory aid (4) mercantile law (8) mercantile law review (3) Metrobank v. CA (2) Metrobank v. FNCB (2) Metropolitan Bank and Trust Co. v. Cablizo (2) miciano v brimo (1) Mijares v CA (1) Miranda Ribaya v Carbonell (1) Misamis Lumber Corp. v. Capital Ins and Surety Co (1) mistake of fact (4) mistake of fact is not a defense (2) mitigating circumstances (2) Mitigation of Liability (1) Montinola v. PNB (2) Moral Damage for Labor Cases (1) moral damages (1) Moral Damages on Taking of Life (2) Moran v. CA and Citytrust Bank (2) morgan v commissioner (2) mortgage (2) mortgagor (4) mortis causa (2) motion jokes (1) motive (2) Motor Vehicle Liability Insurance (2) Mr. and Mrs. Amador C Ong v Metropolitan Water District (1) Murder (2) mutual insurance companies (1) MWSS v. CA (2) Nario v Philippine American Life Insurance Co of Canada (1) National Power v Philipp Brothers (1) national steel corp v ca (1) Natividad V. Andamo v IAC (1) naturalization (1) Nature of Certificate of Stock (4) Nava v. Peers Marketing Corp (2) Negotiable Instruments (4) Negotiable Instruments Case Digest (76) Negotiable Instruments Codals (2) Negotiable Instruments Law (143) Negotiable Instruments Memorize (1) Negotiable Instruments Notes (8) Negotiable Instruments Notes Outline (1) negotiation (1) nepomuceno v ca (1) New Life Enterprises v Court of Appeals (1) No conflicts rule on essential validity of contracts (1) no designation (1) No frustrated rape (2) nocon (1) Northwest Orient Airlines Inc v CA (1) notes (2) Notice of Dishonor (4) November 1 (1) November 14 (6) November 16 (2) November 19 (4) November 2 (3) November 20 (4) November 23 (5) November 25 (3) November 26 (5) November 27 (2) November 28 (5) November 29 (16) November 3 (5) November 30 (2) November 5 (2) November 6 (4) November 7 (1) November 8 (2) nso (1) nso documents (1) October 1 (2) October 10 (3) October 12 (4) October 13 (2) October 14 (2) October 15 (1) October 18 (2) October 19 (5) October 2 (2) October 21 (4) October 23 (4) October 24 (2) October 25 (6) October 28 (2) October 30 (6) October 31 (1) october 7 (2) October 8 (6) Oh Cho v. Director of Lands (1) Ong Lim Sing v. FEB Leasing Finance Corp. (1) Ong Yong v. Tiu (2) opulencia v ca (1) ortega v valmonte (1) other (3) others (1) Outline (7) Overbreadth doctrine (2) P.D. 1529 (1) Pacheco v. CA (2) Pacific Timber v CA (1) Padgett v. Babcock (2) PAL v CA (2) Palileo v Cosio (1) Palting v. San Jose Petroleum (2) panaguiton jr v doj (1) Paris-Manila Perfume Co v Phoenix Assurance (1) part 1 (2) part 2 (2) part 3 (2) part 4 (1) part four (1) Part One (2) part three (3) part two (1) passers (2) payment for honor (2) PDIC (1) pecuniary interest (1) pedro elcano v regina hill (1) People v Bagayong (1) people v. ah chong (2) people v. basao (2) People v. Campuhan (2) People v. Daleba (2) People v. Dela Cruz (1) People v. Domasian (2) People v. Fernando (2) people v. go shiu ling (2) people v. gonzales (1) People v. Lol-lo & Saraw (2) people v. marco (2) People v. Oanis (2) People v. Opero (2) people v. orita (2) People v. Ortega (2) People v. Pagador (2) People v. Palaganas (2) People v. Piliin (2) People v. Pilola (2) People v. Quasha (2) people v. sia (1) People v. Tan Boon Kong (2) people v. wong cheng (2) perez v ca (2) perfection (2) Perla Compania De Seguros v Sps Gaudencio (1) Personal Injury and Death (2) Personal Notes (27) personally liable (1) persons (20) persons case digest (3) persons cases (1) persons secondarily liable (1) Phil American Life Insurance Company v Ansaldo (1) Phil Export v VP Eusebio (1) Philamcare Health Systems (2) philippine (1) Philippine Airlines v. CA (3) Philippine American Life Insurance Company v Pineda (1) Philippine Bank of Commerce v. Jose M. Aruego (2) Philippine Commercial International Bank v CA (1) Philippine Commercial v CA (1) philippine health care providers v estrada (1) philippine lawyer (2) philippine lawyers oath (1) Philippine National Bank v. Erlando Rodriguez (1) Philippine Phoenix Surety Insurance Co v Woodworks Inc (1) Philippine Pryce Assurance Corp v CA (1) Physical Injuries (2) pineda v ca (1) pink notes (1) Pioneer Insurance v. CA (2) Pirovano v. De la Rama Steamship Co. (2) PNB v (2) pnb v ca (1) PNB v. CA (6) PNB v. National City Bank New York (2) PNB v. Ritratto Group (2) PNOC v CA (1) poeple v pirame (1) political law review (2) Ponce v. Alsons Cement Corp. (2) Porfirio P. Cinco v Hon Mateo Canonoy (1) Potenciano v. Reynoso (1) Powers of Corporate Officers (2) prayer (1) Pre-Corporation Code (2) Pre-incorporation Subscription (2) Preemptive Rights (4) prescription (1) Presentment for acceptance (2) Presentment for Payment (2) preterition of surviving spouse (1) pro reo doctrine (1) producers bank v ca (1) Professional Services (2) Professional Services Inc v Natividad and Enrique Agana (1) Promissory Notes (14) Proof and Proximate Cause (5) proof beyond reasonable doubt (2) proof of filiation (6) prosecution of offenses (3) Protest (2) proximate cause (6) Prudencio v. CA (2) Prudential Bank v. IAC (2) PUBLIC ACT NO. 521 (1) Public Enemy (1) Public humiliation (2) Public Utilities (2) Purchase Agreement (2) Qua Chee Gan v Law Union and Rock Insurance Co Ltd (1) qualified by (1) quasi delict (5) Quasi-delict (7) Quasi-negotiable Character of Certificate of Stock (2) Quinto v. Andres (2) Quirante v IAC (1) R.A. 8799 (1) Raagas v Traya (1) rabadilla v ca (1) radiowealth finance v. del rosario (2) rafael partricio v ca (1) Ramos v CA (1) Rationale for Centralized Management Doctrine (2) Real Estate Mortgage (1) red notes (1) Registered Lands (1) registration of property (1) reinsurance (1) Release from Subscription Obligation (2) remedial law (1) remedy (2) Remo Jr. v. IAC (2) Republic of the Phils. v. BPI (2) Republic Planters Bank v. CA (2) republic v. bagtas (1) Republic v. Ebrada (2) Requisites of Double insurance (1) Requisites of negotiability (8) Res Ipsa Loquitur (4) res ipso loquitor (1) Restriction on Transfer (2) review (1) reviewer (7) revised penal code (2) revised rules of court (1) revocable Designation (1) reyes v ca (1) Right of First Refusal (4) right of subrogation (1) Right of the holder (2) Rights (1) Rights of a holder (2) Rights of Holder (1) Rights of Holder against general indorser (1) Rights of the holder (6) Rights to Certificate of Stock for Fully Paid Shares (1) Rivera v. People (2) Rizal Commercial Banking Corporation v CA (1) rodelas v aranza (1) rodrigo concepcion v ca (1) Rodriguez (2) Roman Catholic Apostolic Administrator of Davao v. LRC (2) Roman Catholic Bishop of Malolos v. IAC (2) roxas v de jesus (1) rpc (1) rul 39 (1) rule 110 (3) rule 111 (1) rule on summary procedure (1) rules of court (2) Rules on cover notes (1) Sadaya v. Sevilla (2) Salas v. CA (2) sales (1) Sales de Gonzaga v Crown Life Insurance Co (1) samar mining v nordeutcher lloyd (1) san beda (1) san beda law (3) San Carlos Milling v. CIR (2) San Juan Structural v. CA (2) San Miguel Brewery v Law Union (1) saudi arabian airlines v ca (2) Saura Import Export Co v Philippine International Surety Co (1) sc 173 (1) sec 12 (1) sec 13 (1) sec 1314 (1) Sec 17 (1) sec 177 of the insurance code (1) Sec 18 (1) Sec 189 (1) sec 28 (1) sec 77 (2) sec 84 (1) Sec. 1 - 8 (1) Sec. 17 - 23 (1) Sec. 24 - 29 (1) Sec. 3 (4) Sec. 30-50 (1) Sec. 39 (2) Sec. 51-59 (1) Sec. 9 - 16 (1) Sec.39 (2) SECOND DIVISION (46) second part (1) secondarily liable (1) secs 24 to 29 (1) Section 63 (2) securities regulation code (1) Security Bank v. Rizal Commercial (2) Seguritan v. People (2) senator honasan (2) sentence (1) Sep 21 (1) Separate Juridical Personality (1) september (1) September 1 (4) September 11 (4) September 12 (2) September 14 (2) September 15 (5) September 17 (2) September 18 (2) September 21 (5) September 22 (2) September 23 (2) September 26 (2) September 27 (2) September 28 (6) September 29 (2) september 30 (2) September 4 (2) September 5 (4) Sharuff Co v Baloise Fire Insurance Co (1) siliman (1) simple loan (2) Singapore Airlines v Hon Ernani Cruz Pano (1) So Ping Bun v ca (1) Social Security System v Davac (1) South Sea Surety and Insurance Co v CA (1) Southern Luzon Employees and Ass v Golpeo (1) Special Rules on Experts and Professionals (2) src (1) SSS v Aguas (2) St Louis Realty Corporation v ca (1) State Investment House Inc. v. CA (2) stipulation pour autrui (3) Stipulations Cannot Be Segregated (2) Stock and Transfer Book (2) Stockholders of F. Guanzon and Sons (2) Strebel v Figueros (1) Strong Juridical Personality (2) study guide (1) sulpicio v ca (2) Sumaplong v CA (1) supply (1) supreme court (2) surety bond (1) sweet lines v teves (1) Tai Tong Chuache v Insurance Commission (1) Tan v. SEC (2) Tan v. Sycip (2) Tanco Jr v Philippine Guaranty Co (1) tax 2 (10) tax 2 case digest (5) Tayag v. Benguet (2) teleserv (1) Templation Inc (2) territoriality principle (1) Theory of Concession (2) THIRD DIVISION (36) third part (1) tinga (1) Tiong v. Ting (2) To whom insurance proceeds payable (1) top 10 (1) torts (4) torts and damages (172) torts and damages case digest (79) torts and damages notes outline (5) Traders Royal Bank v. CA (2) Traders Royal Bank v. Radio Philippines Network Inc (2) Transfers (2) transportation (53) transportation case digest (27) Transportation notes (1) transportation notes outline (1) Travel-On v. CA (2) Treachery (2) Triple Eight v NLRC (1) Ty v First National Surety and Assurance Co Inc (1) Types of Acquisitions (2) Types of Acquisitions/Transfers (2) U.S. Jurisprudence (1) U.S. v. Bull (2) ultra vires (2) ultra vires act (1) unfair labor practice (2) Unfounded Suits (4) United States v. Wells (2) university of the philippines (1) unjust dismissal (2) up law (1) up law review (1) US (4) US Jurisprudence (2) us v baggay (1) us v pineda (1) us v. ah sing (1) us v. look chaw (2) uson v del rosario (1) ust (1) ust golden notes (1) ust notes (1) uy kaio eng v nixon lee (1) valenzuela v ca (2) Valenzuela v. People (2) Valle Verde Country Club v. Africa (2) Vda Dde Consuegra v Governments Service Insurance System (1) Velasco v. People (2) Velasquez v. Solidbank Corp (2) Verendia v CA (1) Vicente R. de Ocampo v. Gatchalian (2) Villanueva v Oro (1) Villanueva v. Nite (2) Violago v. BA Finance Corp (2) Violation of Civil and Political Rights (1) Violation of Human Dignity and Privacy (2) Voluntary Dealings (1) Voting Trust Agreements (2) Wee Sion Ben v. Semexco/Zest Markering Corp (2) when corporate officers (1) When Insurable Interest Must Exist (1) when negligent (2) White Gold Marine Services Inc v Pioneer Insurance Surety Corp (1) Who are liable after dissolution (2) Who Exercises Rights of Minor Insured or Beneficiaries (1) Who may recover (3) who or whom (1) wills and succession (38) Wright v Manila Electric (1) writing (1) Yang v. CA (2) you and i (1) you and me (1) zaldiva v reyes (1)