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English 101: Outline of American English Grammar

I. Parts of Speech - function in a sentence
A. Main Parts
1. Nouns
a. definition: words that indicate/identify/name people, places, or things
b. functions:
i. subject of a:
1.) clause
2.) sentence
ii. object ([1.] direct or [2.] indirect) of a verb
iii. object of a preposition
iv. predicate nouns - follow linking verbs to rename or re-identify the subject of a clause or sentence.
2. Pronouns
a. definition: words that represent nouns
b. function (same as nouns)
3. Verbs
a. definition: words that describe the -
i. actions
ii. states of being of nouns
b. function (necessary at least 1 in a sentence): root of a predicate to form a sentence
4. Adjectives
a. definition: words that modify (add description to):
1.) nouns; and
2.) pronouns (occasionally)
b. function: subject or predicate
5. Adverbs
a. words that modify:
1.) verbs,
2.) adjectives,
3.) other adverbs, or even
4.) entire clauses
b. function: predicate - depending on what they modify (and how), adverbs can appear
anywhere in the sentence
c. Common form: adjectives + "ly"
6. Prepositions
a. definition:  words that express a relationship between a 1.) noun or pronoun (object of the preposition) and 2.) another part of the sentence
b. function of prepositional phrases:
i. adjectives; or
ii. adverbs
7. Conjunctions
a. Definition: words that connect other words, phrases, or clauses,
expressing a specific kind of relationship between the two (or more) elements
B. Others
1. Particles - similar in appearance to preposition but different function
2. Determiners - similar to adjectives a. quantifier
3. Gerunds

II. Inflection
A. Conjugation - inflection of:
1. Verbs (i.e. tenses)
B. Declension - inflection of:
1. Nouns (i.e. plurality)
2. Pronouns
3. Adjectives
4. Adverbs

III. Syntax - rules and patters that govern how to structure sentences
A. Words and phrases
1. Basic
a. Subjects; and
b. Predicates
2. Complex
a. Modifiers ([i.] direct: articles, adjectives or prepositional phrases and [ii.] indirect)
b. Phrases
c. Clauses
B. Sentence

Sourced from: The Farflex Grammar Book 1